Combating Resistance to Organizational Change

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Combating Resistance to Organizational Change

By any objective measure, the amount of important, frequently distressing, change in organizations has grown enormously over the last two decades (Kotter, 1996). Jeffrey M. Hiatt, CEO of Prosci Inc., (as cited by Gibson, Ivancevich, Donnelly & Konopaske, 2009, p. 481) explained, “thirty years ago, a foturne 100 probably had one or two enterprisewide change intitiatives goiong on; today that number is proably between 20 and 25.” The speed of global, economic, and techological development makes change an ineveitable element of organiztional life. Change is a pervasive, perisitent, and permenant condition for all organizations (Gibson, et al., 2009).

Organizational change means different things, and strategic renewal comes in different forms. Organizational change includes such concepts as first-order; incremental, continuous change and second-order, transformational/revolutionary, discontinuous change:

• First-order, incremental change, which may include modifications in systems, processes, or structures; however, it does not involve basic change in strategy, core values, or corporate identity. First-order changes preserve and develop the organization: they are changes created, almost contradictory, to sustain organizational continuity and order.

• Second-order, discontinuous change is transformational, extreme, and substantially alters the organization at its core. Second-order change does not involve developing change, rather it entails transforming the makeup of the organization (Palmer, Dunford, & Akin, 2009). In addition, Nadler and Tushman (as cited in Palmer, et. al, 2011) develop this distinction involving incremental...

... middle of paper ... back data are the principal change activities in diagnosis, the change agent should utilize a comprehensive open system model to examine the entire organization rather than just one group (Cummings, 2009). This will lead toward a well-informed change plan (Cummings, 2009). The information from the gathering methods will provide qualitative and well as quantitative data (Logan, 2002). Nadler and Tushman (as cited in Palmer, et. al, 2009, p.127) have developed an open system whereby congruence depends on the alignment of four components: task (particular work activities that must be carried out) individual (the knowledge, skills, needs, expectations of the people in the company), formal organizational arrangements (structure, processes, and methods), and informal organizational (understood, unstated values, beliefs, and behaviors).
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