Feminist Approach to Moral Decision Making While ethics theories often focus on justice, care, an "equally valid moral perspective," is usually disregarded because of male bias (Sterba, p. 52). The two perspectives are often harmonious, but a need for care point of view precedence exists. While truth is evident in both these statements, the problem of distinguishing between them becomes apparent soon after. Many feminist look to psychologist Carol Gilligan's research for evidence to confirm the difference between characteristically male and female approaches to moral decision making. Her research illustrated how men almost unfailingly focus on justice when making moral decisions and women use justice and care in equal proportions in their moral judgments.
After analyzing the patterns, she formed the following hypothesis: "(1) that there are two distinct modes of moral judgment-- justice and care--in the thinking of men and women; (2) that these are gender-related; and (3) that modes of moral judgment might be related to modes of self-definition." (Mapping of the Moral Domain; Ed. by C. Gilligan, J. V. Ward, J. McLean Taylor, B. Bardige; Pub. Harvard University Press, 1988) Throughout the history of ethical theory, women were often viewed as 'morally inferior' to men, as Freud noted. Justice has been viewed as the 'higher' moral perspective, and Lawrence Kohlberg found that women had difficulties reaching this stage of moral development (Ethics - Theory and Contemporary Issues; By Barbara MacKinnon; Ed.
Some claims about communication difference by this myth are that communication and language matter to women more compared to men, men talk less than women, men are less verbally skilled compared to women, goal of men to use language is about getting the things done but women consider making connections and links with people, facts are covered more in men’s talk whereas women talk regarding f... ... middle of paper ... ...ts. This is the reason the facts from nowhere are included by writers in their publications and blindly the people believe them. The meta-analysis by Hyde is a worthy inclusion since it is based on facts and negates the myths which people believe in. In my opinion, there are much less differences than are exaggerated by the majority and also by media-producers. Saying that women talk more than men is another notion which is popular and accurately opposed against in the article.
Women’s myths were thought to be irrelevant and not socially dominant which as an effect overlook them. Generally, these myths made assumptions to sex differences almost resembling those that give credit to male dominance, while transforming these characterizations and reversing the moral interpretations. For example, men are childish and women are mature, men are morally weak but women are virtuous, men are brutish and women are gentle, and men are hardheaded and power-hungry while women are cooperative. Women’s specific beliefs could vary by period, region and social
Some theorists, like Lakoff, that both genders are innately different when it comes to communication and therefore both genders are treated differently (Lakoff 1975: 50). Foels, Driskell, Mullen, and Salas believe that both genders do not communicate differently in the least and instead communication techniques vary according to the situation or context in which a person interacts (Foels, Driskell, Mullen, Salas 200: 676-677). Some, like Tannen and Wood, even believe that the main distinction between male and female talk is not that both genders communicate differently; it is that males and females simply misunderstand each other (Tannen 1990: 363,368; Wood 2009: 7-8, 25). Arguments from theorists Cameron, Coates, Ostermann, West et al, and Harvey will also be explored when analyzing the gender distinctions evident in communication. Recognizing particular cues that concern a certain situation can be taught and may not be gender-dependent.
This isn’t because you are just wired to think differently, this is because society has long told us that men must be competitive while women must take submissive roles in society. It is best put by Henley and Kramaraed stating “ because sexual communication is indirect, subtle, complex, and shaped by gendered norms for interaction, genuine miscommunication undoubtedly does take place”(qt. Eckert, Penelope & Ginet, Sally-McConnell 244). Ronald Macaulay disagrees when he writes “ There seems, however, to be a deep-seated desire to find essential differences between the speech of men and women tha... ... middle of paper ... ... “ Grammar and Gender” London: Yale University Press, 1987. Print Crawford, Mary.
The key contrast in the approaches undertaken by Gray and the feminists is why those discrepancies exist. According to Gray, the concept of the two sexes is a reason of its own for the intersexual communication. On the other hand, sociolinguists have proved that the notion of "performing gender" through language is key to understanding the great extent of sexism, stereotyping and incompetent guesses hidden in the popular self-help books, which promote the view that men and women come from different planets and thus create the unjust society, in which women occupy the role of the 'second sex' as opposed to men, who are the 'norm'.
Nightingale’s article also starts off with a strong statement in the form of a question. She wonders why women are given such useful gifts if utilizing them is socially unacceptable: “Why have women passion, intellect, moral activity...and a place in society where no one of the three can be exercised?” (Nightingale 1734). Although these works both have the same thread running through them, they place the blame for the occurrence in different places. In Mill’s essay, he places the blame for the suffrage of woman on custom. He says, “custom...affords i... ... middle of paper ... ... sound like completely different arguments; however, they are both placing the blame on one relationship.
According to the Merriam -Webster Online Dictionary an assumption is a belief that something is true or a fact or statement that is taken for granted. Susan Glaspell wrote "Trifles" to demonstrate the male assumption that women are insignificant members in a male dominated society. Because the men underestimate them, the women are able to prove they are not insignificant. The improper assumptions by men toward women can have dire consequences, as demonstrated in Glaspell's world. Combating these narcissistic assumptions displayed by men can result in a unity among women that can overcome any male caused disrespect and oppression.
Women take greater responsibility for establishing and maintaining interpersonal bonds, whereas men do not. Also, women are more empathetic and more accurate at decoding nonverbal communication than males. Male gender roles also claim that men should remain independent and not agree closely with others, while it is seen as acceptable for women to conform to group behaviors. According to the studies by Maslach, Santee, and Wade (1987), part of the masculine gender role is to be independent and assertive, therefore leading males to conform less. At the same time, they stated that part of the feminine role involves being sensitive to others, therefore leading to conformity to maintain harmony.