World War II ended in 1945, but America could not rest. “Serious discussion about reorganization began in Congress and the military department in 1944 and aroused much public interest” (Trask 1997). Because the Air Force played such a large role, discussion of separating the Air Force from the Army Air Forces (AAF) began. A proposal was created to establish one department for the United States Armed Forces, combining all the military branches under one department. “On 19 December 1945, President Truman sent a message to Congress recommending a single department of national defense with three coordinate branches – land, sea, and air.” (Trask 1997).
The National Security Act of 1947, signed by President Harry S Truman, is how the Central Intelligence Agency was formally created. The “office off director of central intelligence” was also created as a result of this Act. Anyone in this position served as head of the United States intelligence community and acts as the President’s principal advisor. He/She usually updates the President of any and all intelligence issues concerning national security (Wagner 13). Even before the National Security Act, our nation’s officials used spies, secret agents, covert action, and the gathering of intelligence during wars.
In 1917, threats against the President became a felony and Secret Service protection was broadened to include all members of the First Family (White House, online). In 1951, protection of t... ... middle of paper ... ...clearance; and some positions require the applicant to take a polygraph examination. Applicants must be a citizen of the United States and posses the required knowledge, skills, and abilities of the respective position. References Bush, G.W. (2001), Patriot Act, Online at http://wwww.whitehouse.gov CIO Magazine, FBI And Secret Service Announce New Cyberthreat Reporting Guidelines For Businesses; Guidelines Mark First Standards Authorized by US Federal Law Enforcement (2002, Feb. 12), CIO Magazine,1 Emerson, S. (2002), American Jihad: The Terrorists Living Among Us, New York: Simon & Schuster Miller, J.J. (2001, Oct. 15), Border Lines - What to do about immigration after 9/11: World Trade Center and Pentagon Attacks, National Review, 21 Secret Service, online at http://www.ustreas.gov/opc/opc0042.html#usss Timeline, online http://emperors-clothes.com/indict/indict-3.htm Timeline, (2001, Sept. 23), http://www.newsday.com/ny-uspent232380681sep23.story http://www.fas.org/irp/news/2001/09/dot091401.html Torco, T. (2004).
Furthermore, according to a report distributed by Cong... ... middle of paper ... ... D. E. (2003, December 7). The Saudi Connection: How billions in oil money spawned a global terror network. In U.S. News and World Report: Money and Business. Retrieved November 27, 2011, from http://www.usnews.com/usnews/news/articles/031215/15terror.htm The 9/11 Commission Report: Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (2002).
The aftermath of 9/11 caused America to be vulnerable to terrorism. It affected every race across the U.S. causing some to be racially profiled because of the race that was “assumed” to be behind the attacks. In order to strengthen the U.S. from future attacks, the Homeland Security Act was passed in 2002. This Act was introduced after the 9/11 attacks and mailing of anthrax. It was signed into law by then President George W. Bush in November 2002.
President Bush and his administration made use of an authorization by Congress that was granted to the President a week after the attacks of September 11, 2001 to “use all necessary and appropriate force against those nations, organizations, or persons, he determined planned, authorized, committed, or aided the terrorist attacks…” He considered that authorization as a permission to activate his unilateral emergency and wartime powers in order to conduct a war against terrorism in Afghanistan, fighting Al Qaeda, Taliban and their allied fighters and detaining thousands in custody for interrogation at different locations, some of which are still classified. The Bush administration claimed that those militants are not military combatants; therefore they are neither covered under the Geneva Conventions nor the procedural protections of the criminal justice. In other words, the administration allowed both its intelligence and defense apparatuses to hold the prisoners indefinitely at undisclosed locations, to subject them to harsh means of interrogations and to even try them before military commissions in absence of a proper or fair representation. This paper is not going to discuss the constitutionality of Afghanistan war that was conducted without the Congress’ declaration of war because of the following reasons. First, we simply consider the Authorization of Military Force mentioned above as consent of the Congress’ support to President Bush to activate his wartime and emergency powers as the Commander in Chief of the Army and the Navy as the Constitution grants.
Policy Identification and Explanation Public Law No. 107-56 Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act [USA PATRIOT Act] of 2001, Section 215 is responsible for access to records and other items under FISA, which stands for the Federal Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978, this act was implemented during the George W. Bush administration after the September 11th terrorist attacks. These records can be, as listed in the original FISA document are “library circulation records, library patrons lists, book sales records, book customer lists, firearms sales records, tax return records and medical or educational records or anything that would identify a person” (FISA, 1978). Section 215 is simply the striking and replacement of section 501 and 502 of the Federal Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 which covers procedures for physical and electronic surveillance and collection of evidence (§). Section 215 is almost exactly the same as FISA sections 501-502, the thing that makes it different is that 215 allows records to be collected on United States person.
"The most appropriate procedure would be to decide on the type of intelligence we need, based on an assessment of the recommendations of this unit, and then to proceed to remove the restraints as neccessary to obtain such intelligence." May 3, 1971 Following Nixon's decision concerning Laos, Anti-Vietnam activists attempt to shutdown Washington by blocking roads with stalled cars, human blockades, garbage cans, and other materials. The protests result in over 12,000 arrests. John Dean headed up the White House intelligence gathering during this protest. June 13, 1971 The New York Times begins publication of excerpts from "The Pentagon Papers".
Does anti-terrorism legislation, help with the fight on terrorism, violate civil liberties or cause a Fascist State? In this research paper, I will examine these findings to discover if the allegations are true. In 2001, The Patriot Act was voted on by the Act of Congress and was signed by the presiding President, George W. Bush on October 26, 2001. “The name ‘Patriot Act’ is an acronym for ‘Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism’.” (Discover the Network, n.d.). The Patriot Act was formed to strength the domestic security and to connect all law-enforcement agencies (FBI, CIA and Homeland Security) together to stop terrorism in the United States.
1.) The major laws and regulations that direct the operations of the Department of Homeland Security are as follows; the Homeland Security Act of 2002, Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004, and the Implementing Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission Act of 2007. The Homeland Security Act of 2002 was introduced after the September 11, 2001 attacks and mailing of anthrax. It was signed into law by then President George W. Bush in November 2002. It created both the United States Department of Homeland Security and the cabinet-level position of Secretary of Homeland Security¹.