In conclusion biological psychology is vital during mental illness and understanding how human beings behave, since human behavior is triggered by the mind. Despite its many strengths and supportive facts, biological psychology fails to consider the social and emotional aspect of the person and the things that can affect them outside of their biology. Works Cited Lerner, R 2002, Concepts and theories of human development, Blackwell, Oxford. Piaget, J 1983, “Piaget’s theory” handbook of child psychology, Willey, New York. Tenenat, J 2008, The nervous system, viewed 8th April 2011,
Behavior Psychology Psychology is defined as a science that focuses on the study of and to explain the way human’s think, behave, and feel. The behaviourist school of psychology is concerned with the explanation of behaviour through observable outcomes without making reference to mental events. Behaviourism is very narrow and can be strongly objected in its approach to psychology as it does not consider the mental thought process involvement in behaviour. This school of psychology is very much about nurture rather than nature. (Harre and Lamb, 1983).
Ivan Pavlov researched the digestive systems of dogs to discover the classical conditioning process, which demonstrated that this learning process could be used to make an association between an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus. The two elements are then known as the conditioned stimulus and the conditioned response. B.F. Skinner came up with the concept of operant conditioning, which showed the effect of punishments and reinforcements on behavior. Through operant conditioning, a connection is made between a behavior and a consequence for that behavior. The basic principles of behaviorism are widely used today, in many situations ranging from parenting to education.
Classical conditioning is a learning connection between an original stimulus and a naturally evoking stimulus that causes an automatic reflexive reaction. Classical conditioning was the first type of learning to be discovered (Halgin and Whitbourne, 2013). Classical conditioning was also the first to be studied by behaviorist (Halgin and Whitbourne, 2013). Classical conditioning was discovered by Ivan Pavlov (AllPsych, 2011). During Pavlov’s experiments, he would put meat powder in dogs mouths that had tubes inserted in different organs to measure the dogs body responses (AllPsych, 2011).
There are two types of conditioning, classical and operant. Classical conditioning occurs when one naturally responds to a stimulus. The most renowned example of this being Pavlov 's observation that dogs automatically salivate when food was presented. Pavlov decided do further examine the behavioral qualities of these dogs by produces a noise along with the presentation of the stimulus to encourage a reaction of salivation. Over time, Pavlov took the stimulus away and just rang the bell.
“The fact that conditioned stimulus (CS) – conditioned response (CR) pairings can be instated without great difficulty suggests that extinction does not involve unlearning of the associations (Redish, Jensen, Johnson, & Kurth-Nelson, 2007). In summary of Pavlov’s research, he studied the link between stimulus and response. While doing he was doing his research on salivation in dogs, Pavlov noted that his experimental dogs began to salivate only at the sight of food but eventually at the sound of the ticking metronome which was paired with the food. This observation led him to perform his famous experiment in which he taught the dogs to salivate at the sound of the metronome. After several repetitions of this association, the dog began salivating at the sound of the metronome even when there was no food in sight (Schunk, 2012, p.79-82).
Classical conditioning is a process of learning associations between stimuli used by Ivan Pavlov, a Russian physiologist. In classical conditioning, a stimulus causes an existing behavior to occur. Pavlov used classical conditioning to study dog salivation. A ringing bell was used as a neutral stimulus. During the conditioning the bell is repeatedly sounded immediately before the food is placed in front of the dog producing the natural reflex of salivation, which is an unconditioned response (unlearned reflexive response).
Psychologists like Ivan Pavlov, John Watson, and B.F Skinner performed various experiments to investigate these many questions and more. Ivan Pavlov was a poor Russian psychologist. He originally had the notion to study the digestive system and determine if the digestive system was somehow linked to the nervous system. He wanted to know which foods produced which kind of saliva. To resolve this he used dogs.
Development results from organization of existing behaviors. There are two categories of learning: classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning focuses on associations linked to involuntary behaviors. Pavlov is the father of modern learning theory. Through his experiment he discovered that an unconditioned stimulus could automatically trigger an involuntary response.
Pavlov Theory - Conditioned Response A commonly heard word within psychology is “conditioning”, where does it come from and what does it mean? Conditioning is simply a form of learning, specifically learning through association. Conditioning is used in many experiments as I will discuss later. Classical conditioning was stumbled upon by accident by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov. After he earned his medical degree in 1882 he spent many years studying the digestive system of many animals.