Viruses, Bacteria, Prions Bacteria is essential to humans to not only be able to live, but also to be able to live on Earth. Bacteria is also essential for good health. The typical structure of bacteria includes; cytoplasm, nucleoid, flagella, pili, and a cell wall with a capsid. Bacteria is found in the Large Intestine, where it makes Vitamin K. It also helps provide a taste for yogurt and sourdough bread.
missing graphs What causes Mad Cow Disease? Prions. Prions are also behind other neurodegenerative diseases such as the Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Kuru, Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker disease and some forms of fatal insomnia. These are all prions diseases that have been found to exist in humans. The prion disease for cattle is what we know as the Mad Cow Disease.
Each of the different categories of the disease presents various clinical and neuropathological symptoms and patterns at onset and throughout the course of the disease. The prion strain, codon 129 and method of i...
...resistant PrP and PrP oligomers in the brain in human prion diseases after intraventricular pentosan polysulfate infusion. Neuropathology, 32(2), 124-132. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1789.2011.01245.x
In the subsequent essay I will discuss and explain the relative function of the Prion protein. The Prion protein, also known as PrPC, ‘’is a membrane-anchored protein with two N-glycosylation sites and, although it is highly expressed in the nervous tissues, its physiological functions have yet to be well established’’ (Coordination Chemistry Reviews). PrPC/PrP is found in healthy brains in this form, and consists of 250 Amino Acids, yet after a simple misfolding in the secondary structure; this can alienate the PrP and forms PrPsc, which is the abnormal form of the Prion protein. The infectious agent PrPsc causes neuropathological changes in the brain, and instantly places the individual under the category of someone with the prion disease. PrPsc forms insoluble fibres and thus cannot be studied well using Nuclear Mass Resonance (NMR), and it is also more resistant to protease digestion. Furthermore, ‘’ The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) arise from conversion of the membrane-bound prion protein from PrPC to PrPSc, the latter being the scrapie form. Examples of the TSEs include mad cow disease, chronic wasting disease in deer and elk, scrapie in goats and sheep, and kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans’’ (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2904554/. 2014). The following diagram shows the conversion from PrPc to PrPsc:
Guyer, Ruth Levy, Ph.D. “Prions: Puzzling Infectious Proteins” National Institutes of Health Office of Science. 28 July 2006 < science.education.nih.gov/nihHTML/ose/snapshots/multimedia/ritn/prions/prions1.html>.
The Creutzfeld-Jakob Disease is a rare brain disorder that is fatal. Reseachers find about one case of CJD disease per million each year.CJD can effect anyone, this disease effects both males and females of different ethnic groups usually between the ages of 50-75 .This disease causes progressive dementia and neuromuscular problems. Researchers still don’t know for sure what agent causes the Creutzfeld-Jakob Disease, it is a topic that has been debated about. It was first thought to be a virus but a virus contains nucleic acid and when researchers looked at the CJD agent, they found it contained no nucleic acid. Also the chemicals that are supposed to make most viruses inactive did nothing to decrease the inefficiency of the CJD disease.
Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a family of rare progressive neurodegenerative disorders that affect both humans and animals. They are distinguished by long incubation periods, characteristic spongiform changes associated with neuronal loss, and a failure to induce inflammatory response. The proteinaceous infectious particles, prion was identified by an American neurologist Stanley B. Prusiner and colleagues in 1982derived from the words protein and infection (Stanley B. Prusiner -Autobiography). Prions are known to Creutzfeldt - Jakob disease (CJD), Gerstmann–Sträussler–Scheinker syndrome and Fatal Familiar Insomnia in humans. In mammals they cause "mad cow disease" in cattle. Prion diseases affect the structure of the brain or other neural tissue and all are currently universally fatal and untreatable (Prusiner, 1998).
Tay- Sachs disease happens when the body doesn’t have Hexosaminidase A, a protein that helps break down chemicals found in nerve tissue called Gangliosides. Without Gangliosides, Gm2 piles up in the cells, specifically nerve cells found in the brain. Tay-Sach is caused by a defected gene on chroBernard Sachs and Warren Tay, 19th century neurological physicians, described the progress of this disease and gave differential diagnostic criteria to tell the differences between this disease and other neurological disorders with similar symptoms. Both physicians reported cases that were among Jewish families.