However, Cashmore goes on to argue that the terminology of race has been used to reflect changes in the understanding of physical and cultural differences (1988:235). Cornell and Hartman argue the characteristics that constitute a definition for the concept of race are complex. The authors claim that race can be categorised in social and physical terms. Race is a “human group defined by itself or others as distinct by virtue of perceived common physical... ... middle of paper ... ...The most profound conclusion on the concept of race is the argument that the term is not a biologically innate fixture.
), (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001) - Poe, E.A., The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008) - Rudoff, S., ‘Written in Stone: Slavery and Authority in The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym’, In ATQ, Vol. 14 No.1, (March 2000) - Whalen, T., ‘Average Racism; Poe, Slavery, and the Wages of Literary Nationalism’, In Romancing the Shadow; Poe and Race, Kennedy, J.G. and Weissberg, L. (eds. ), (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001)
Retrieved March 25, 2012, from Retrieved from URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2716188 Smaje, C. (2002). Re-thinking the Origins Debate: Race Formation and Political Formations in England's Chesapeake Colonies. Journal of Historical Sociology, 15(2), 193-219. Starr, R. (1973). Historians and the Origin of British North American Slavery.
(3) Ivan Hannaford, Race.The History of an idea in the West (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press: 1996). (4) Martin Heidegger, Being and Time, translated by John Macquarrie and Edward Robinson(New York: Harper and Row, 1962). (5) Jean-Paul Sartre, Being and Nothingness translated by Hazel Barnes(New York: Washington Square Press, 1956), pp 432-434. (6) Simone deBeauvoir, The Second Sex, translated by H.M. Parshley (New York: Random House, 1972) p. xxx (7) Anthony Kwame Appiah, In My Father's House: Africa in the Philosphy of Culture (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992) (8) Karl Marx, 1973. The German Ideology, New York: International Publishers, 1973), p. 39.
Moreover, each different colony the British ruled longed for a sense of nationalism and hence the revolts and turmoil. To fully understand the influence Britain had over its colonies, imperialism itself must be defined. Winfried Baumagart explains the social conception of nationalism and the “white man’s burden” which is to not only expand into foreign lands and establish rule, but is also to culturally educate the people. This is the definition of imperialism; however, there is more to imperialism as he goes on to explain. The significance of trade, missionary activities, technological advancements, naval developments, and exploration are all highlighted as important factors of imperialism.
Work Cited Back, Les, and Solomos, John, Theories of Race and Racism: A Reader, (New York: Routledge, 2000). Lewis, David L., W.E.B. Dubois: Biography of a Race, 1868-1919, (New York: Owl Books, 1994). Lewis, David L., W.E.B. Du Bois: The Fight for Equality and the American Century 1919-1963, (New York: Henry Holt and company, LLC, 2000).
Figueroa, Luis. Lecture, September 1998 Gonzales, Jose Luis. Puerto Rico: the Four Storeyed Country and Other Essays (Princeton: Markus Wiener Publishing Inc.)1-30. Scarano, Francisco. "Sugar and Slavery in Puerto Rico, 1815-1849: An Overview," from Scarano ,Sugar and Slavery in Puerto Rico: Plantation Economy of Ponce,1800-1850(Madison :U of Wisconsin Press,1984) 3-34. del Valle Atiles, Francisco.
Reference List - (Victoria University Library data base - American Studies in Review. ‘‘A knowing so Deep It’s Like a secret’’ Recent Approaches to Race, Identity and Transformation in Toni Morrison’s Fiction.) - (Unit reader Linda Krumholz ‘Blackness and Art in Toni Morrison’s Tar baby) - (Victoria University Library data base – Nick Bentley ‘Re – writing Englishness imagining the nation in Julian Barnes’s England, England and Zadie Smith’s White Teeth’.) - (Victoria University Library data base-
Generally, the meanings of race and ethnicity have their starting points from sociological and biological variables. The physical appearance of a someone, for example, eye shading, skin shading, jaw/bone structure and additionally hair shading depict race while ethnicity is related to the social elements, for example, culture, convictions, heritage, and nationality. Race is a term that depicts a group of individuals with comparative characteristics. I think race is resolved by physical characteristics, for example, type of color skin, language they speak, eye shape they have, or even things, for example, blood classifications. Individuals in general are portrayed as "humankind".