American Indians have had health disparities as result of unmet needs and historical traumatic experiences that have lasted over 500 hundred years.1(p99) Since first contact American Indians have been exposed to infectious disease and death2(p19), more importantly, a legacy of genocide, legislated forcible removal, reservation, termination, allotment, and assimilation3. This catastrophic history had led to generational historical traumas and contributes to the worst health in the United States.2 American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN) represent 0.9 percent of the United States population4(p3) or 1.9 million AI/AN of 566 federally recognized tribes/nations.5 American Indians/Alaska Natives have significantly higher mortality rates of intentional and unintentional injuries, chronic liver disease and cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease and chronic lower respiratory disease than other American.6 Diabetes Mellitus (Type 2 diabetes/adult onset diabetes) is an epidemic in American Indian and Alaska Natives communities.7 AI/AN have the highest morbidity and mortality rates in the United States.7 American Indian/Alaska Native adults are 2.3 more times likely to be diagnosed with Diabetes Mellitus than non-Hispanic Whites.7 More importantly, AI/AN adolescent ages 10-14 are 9 times likely to be diagnosed with Diabetes Mellitus than non-Hispanic Whites.7 Type 2 diabetes is high blood glucose levels due to lack of insulin and/or inability to use it efficiently.8 Type 2 diabetes usually affects older adults; 8 however, the incident rate is rising quicker amongst AI/AN youth than non-Hispanic Whites.7 This is foreshadowing of earlier serious complications that will be effecting the AI/AN communitie... ... middle of paper ... ...alth screening and risk classification, self-efficacy, and mental health. The classes provided would provide best practice techniques in a group setting. The group setting would mirror the community approach that is seen in traditional AI/AN communities. It would build on strengths and resources within the community and promote co-learning amongst all community members. In conclusion, the persistent disparities in American Indians and Alaska Natives communities are deeply rooted in historical trauma. To improve the health status of AI/AN there needs more American Indian/Alaska Natives delivery health care to the community. More importantly, tribal leaders and the AI/AN community must participate in raising the health status of the community. It should not take a congressional action to decrease the disparities plaguing the American Indian/Alaska Native communities.
The Tohono O’odham tribe reportedly has the highest rate of type II diabetes in the world. Half of the adults in the tribe have diabetes and the rates for children with diabetes are increasing. The Pima tribe also has a high rate of diabetes and it is suggested that it is due to the loss of water in the Pima community. The Pima tribe depended on the Gila River as an essential water source to grow their food until the water was diverted to white settlers for their own personal use. The loss of water lead
When early Europeans arrived in the United States more than 500 years ago, they were surprised to see Native Americans recovering from illnesses and injuries that they considered fatal. In many ways, the Indians' herbal remedies were far superior to those known to the new immigrants. But, for the Native Americans, they had no remedies for the "diseases of civilization," or white man's diseases, such as measles and small pox, which would wipe out thousands of them over the next few centuries. Not
Historical trauma has brought psychological effects on the Native American community. Many suffer from alcohol and drug abuse, depression, and poverty. I wondered why they do not get help from the government and after watching the documentary California’s “Lost” Tribes I began to understand that in any reservation the tribe is the government, so they do not have the same rights as a city outside the reservation. Many of the the reservations were placed in areas where they could not do any form of agriculture, so they did not have a source of income. Many of this reservations have to find ways to get themselves out of poverty and many of the reservations within California have found a way to get out of their poverty by creating casinos
According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2012), the diabetes rate has more than tripled since 1980 from about 5.6 million people affected, to nearly 21 million people. And, of the 2.9 million Native Americans, approximately 16% have been afflicted with type-2 diabetes (U.S. Census Bureau, 2010). These rates were more than twice the rates for the white population and strongly correlated with income level. One factor that is believed to have contributed to the high rates of non-insulin-dependent diabetes is dietary changes from traditional foods to processed foods (Reinhard et al., 2012).
In this study, past literature and current statistics will provide an explanation for the diabetes health disparity epidemic among the Latino community. There will be another aspect of this disparity in terms of the role of acculturation on Latinos and how this impact the rate one acquires diabetes. Acculturation is the beginning stages of assimilation, rather the way one integrates into the dominant culture. In the case of Latinos, it is adjusting to the American culture. Further, the role of acculturation and cultural lifestyle will be analyzed to validate its role in the high prevalence among the Latino community. After triggers and accu...
Many people believe that Native Americans are a disadvantaged group of individuals in many ways. Culturally, in that many of the cultures of the various tribes across the Americas were taken from them by Europeans and their descendants. Socially, in that they are unlike other minorities in the United States because of their extra-constitutional status; and even medically, stemming from the general belief that Natives are at a higher risk for disease than other ethnicities due to tobacco and alcohol use, especially when used together (Falk, Hiller-Sturmhöfel, & Yi, 2006).
This paper will discuss the Native American culture and briefly review their history, some beliefs and roles in society today. A short description into their culture with References will be used to show how Native Americans have been affected throughout hundreds of years. The trauma this culture endured has created many barriers, yet one often seen today is their extreme problem with the disease of Alcoholism. The Native American culture has gone through endless struggles, which has cost them to lose so much and still continues to impact them today. They are slowly moving back toward getting benefits that should have been available long ago, but in today’s world Native Americans still battle with many barriers not only in society, but in getting appropriate treatment for mental health or addiction issues.
Diabetes mellitus is defined as "a group of diseases characterized by high levels of blood glucose, which result from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both" (2). There are two types of diabetes, one that "occurs when the body produces little or no insulin, and that typically affects children and young adults," and the other, which "typically develops in adults, and occurs when the body does not use insulin effectively", types II diabetes being the most common (3). According to the CDC and the National Center for Health Statistics, "the number of Americans with diabetes in the year 2000 was 17 million or 6.2 percent of the population, as compared to 15.7 million (5.9 percent) in 1998" (4). However, and on average, Hispanic Americans and African Americans are almost twice as likely to have diabetes in comparison to white Americans. In addition, African Americans and Hispanic Americans show a higher incidence of suffering from diabetes related complications including but not limited to eye and kidney disease, amputations, heart disease, heart stroke etc (5).
The Latinos Diabetes Initiative is a successful program that was launched in July 2002 by the Joselin Diabetes Center. This center is dedicated to defeating diabetes in all forms—as it is one of the global leaders in diabetes research, care, and education. Their goal is to prevent and cure diabetes for future or current patients. They are an independent, non-profit institution affiliated with Harvard’ Medical school, one of the best in the nations. The main focus though for the Latinos Diabetes Initiative is that they are aimed to give affected (with diabetes) and non-affected Hispanics improved lives with culturally oriented patient care, education, outreach, and research (source). The number of
Studies have shown there has been an increased prevalence of diabetes in the Native American culture. There has been a correlation with the rise of diabetes in American Indians and the Westernization of Native Americans. During Westernization, there was a gradual reduction in native foods. Because of this, Native Americans started incorporating foods that were high in fat and sugar, and low in whole grains and fiber. (Yracheta, Joseph M, MS; Lanaspa, Miguel A, PHD; Le, MyPhuong T, PHD; Abdelmalak, Manal F, MD; Alfonso, Javier, MD., Jun 2015, p. 815). By the 1930s, obesity and diabetes, were more common in the Pima than in other American Indian tribes. (Yracheta, Joseph M, MS; Lanaspa, Miguel A, PHD; Le, MyPhuong T, PHD; Abdelmalak, Manal F, MD; Alfonso, Javier, MD., Jun 2015, p. 816).
Native-Americans make up one of the smallest portions of our population, but are still victims of mass incarceration and police brutality Many Native-American reservations have high unemployment rates. Poverty in these areas is also common. Reserved, sacred land for Native-Americans is also disappearing as more and more land is being taken away by United States government. The government also disobeys treaty rights by exploiting their land for natural resources to gain profit. Low graduation rates are common in Native school districts. Suicide is much more prevalent among Native-American youth when compared to the rest of the nation. They also generally receive poor healthcare. Violence and abuse of children and women is more common in Native-American communities as well.