L. Krenn,M (1999). Black Diplomacy: African Americans and the State Department, 1945-1969. New york: Sharpe.
History of African Americans after Reconstruction During reconstruction the United States was divided on social issues, presidential campaigns were won and loss on these issues during this period. The struggle for development of African Americans and how they initiated change in political, economic, educational, and social conditions to shape their future and that of the United States. (Dixon, 2000) The South’s attempts to recover from the Civil war included determining what to do with newly freed slaves and finding labor to replace them. The task of elevating the Negro from slave to citizen was the most enormous one which had ever confronted the country. Local governments implemented mechanisms of discrimination to combat citizenship and equality such as Jim Crow laws and the KKK (Bowles, 2011) in place in the south to ensure the white citizen superiority, these inherent beliefs continued for generations.
Holloway, Joseph, E “Africanisms in American Culture_. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990. 3. Du Bois, W.E.B. “Of Our Spiritual Strivings “_The Souls of Black Folk_.
There are many issues that African Americans face in today’s society, many of which I had not realized until after taking Africana Studies. Some issues dwell on the horrific past of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade, which not only is history, but also is part of African American heritage (Karenga, 2010). African Americans frequently experience many perilous problems, such as dire economic situations and feelings of hostility from the cultural mainstream in America (Kaufman, 1971). The cultural collision between African Americans and whites continues to create several problems in society. African Americans are susceptible to racial discrimination, a reality that ultimately shapes the way of life for African Americans (Hine, et.
Regarding these various matters, African American studies is an multidisciplinary field created from the history and development of the African American culture, viewed through an afro-centric mindset. The emergence of black studies can be traced back to the nineteenth century, particularly in the 1880’s. It first began as a movement to discuss the inferiority of blacks, and was originally defined as the study of black people. (Hayes 1) Essays and journals can be found dating back to the nineteenth century which examine elements of the black experience. Some of which handle the topic of literature, others deal with education, and several examine language and literature.
c1994. Walters, Ronald W. Black Presidential Politics in America: A Strategic Approach. State University of New York Press: United States of America. c1988. Weiss, Nancy J. Farewell to the Party of Lincoln: Black Politics in the Age of FDR.
The fight for equality has been fought for many years throughout American History and fought by multiple ethnicities. For African Americans this fight was not only fought to gain equal civil rights but also to allow a change at achieving the American dream. While the United States was faced with the Civil Rights Movements a silent storm brewed and from this storm emerged a social movement that shook the ground of the Civil Right Movement, giving way to a new movement that brought with it new powers and new fears. The phrase “Black power” coined during the Civil Right Movement for some was a slogan of empowerment, while other looked at it as a threat and attempted to quell this Black Power Movement. The Peaceful Protest During the 1950’s a struggle for African American rights were under way.
In Journal of American History, 75:4 (1989), pp. 1281-1283. Rucker, W. C., The River Flows On: Black Resistance, Culture, and Identity Formation in Early America. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2006. Stampp, K. M., The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-Bellum South, 2nd ed.