For example, farming techniques which use earth-moving machines can appear effective for crop production, but will eventually damage the topsoil which thereby decreases crop productivity (McLaren, 1990). Erosion is a substantial contributor to deterioration of soil quality. Flood and furrow irrigation use a high influx of water to immerse the crop area.
Agriculture can remove valuable topsoil, which is the most productive part of cropping. If this soil layer is no longer valuable this will result in higher production costs and less productive cropping lands. This elimination of topsoil causes rills and gullies which make agriculture impossible. Eroded soil, contains nutrients, can be deposited in grassed waterways, dams, or wetlands. Reef water quality has deteriorated over the past 150 years.
The trends of the major soil degradation are almost difficult to measure because they are constantly changing. Soil degradation such as, the erosion, organic matter decline, compaction, salinization, landslides, contamination, sealing, biodiversity decline is the significant soil degradation. These degradations occur at the land surface as a poor agriculture. Soil Salinity is known as the salt content in the soil, and the process of increasing the salt content is known as salinization. It is considered to be as a significant environmental problem because people are more worried about the other environmental problems and they are unaware how important it is while it keeps increasing.
Our first reason is that chemical fertilizers contain many elements that are bad for crops. -Chemical fertilizers contain salt that is bad for the crop’s soil. It consumes the soil’s important nutrients and minerals that are normally found naturally in crop’s soil. Many people think that using chemical fertilizer will replenish the lost nutrients, but the fertilizer only replenishes nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus. A lot of times, phosphorus is drained from the soil into groundwater.
• The moisture supply to the soil is reduced by soil erosion which then affecting the activities of microorganisms of the soil thus diminishing the production yields. • Soil erosion results in the loss of the top layer of soil that contains the nutrients and organic matter thus affecting the structure of the soil and reducing soil fertility. • There is reduced capacity for soil to store water and nutrients as a result of wind erosion which results in a dry environment.  Methods of soil and water
Erosion Introduction - Soil erosion is washing or blowing away (by water or wind) of top layer of soil(dirt). - Erosion leaves large holes on earth, which can weaken buildings and even cause them to collapse. - Soil erosion is a natural process. It becomes a problem when human activity causes it to occur faster than under natural conditions. - Nigeria’s most devastating environmental disaster - Much topsoil lost resulting in greatly decreased production capability - Plugs channels & raises riverbeds, increasing flood risks - Geologic Soil Erosion – natural wearing away of land surface by water or wind.
During erosion soil particles of the fertile topsoil are removed either by wind or water (i.e. runoff), this process is irreversible and can lead to the reduction of soil productivity (7). Salinization refers to the problem where water-soluble salts containing sodium, potassium, magnesium,
("Understanding Acid Rain" S1) Acid rain harms leaves and at this point, they can no longer utilize photosynthesis adequately to make enough food to keep a tree developing. (Reich and Amundson 566) Soil is a dynamic blend of rock and rotting matter that covers a large part of Earth 's surface. Soil is necessary, it provides many resources. Acid rain may seep into soil, causing it to mix with the soil. Calcium and magnesium are vital for plant development, they also kill acids, by the use of buffering.
Definitions Soil erosion: Is the wearing away of topsoil- the nutrient-rich top layer of soil, by the natural physical forces of water and wind or through forces associated with farming activities. Soil erosion reduces cropland productivity and contributes to the pollution of nearby watercourses, wetlands and lakes. Soil is a non-renewable resource. Desertification: Without soil and plants the land becomes desert-like and unable to support life. Runoff: Something that drains or flows off from the land in streams.
The definition of soil compaction is the process in which a stress applied to a soil causes densification (the act of becoming or making more dense) as air is displaced from the pores between the soil grains. Soil compaction is a key part in building in the construction of highway embankments, earth dams, foundations, and many other engineering structure. The reason it is the key part is without soil compaction buildings would fall over and get destroyed. Soil compaction can get extremely complex but it depends on which method you decide to use. Some methods have lots of complex math and some do not.