British Dominion in India and After. Bombay, India; Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 1964 6. Metcalf R, Thomas. The Aftermath of Revolt India, 1857-1870. Princeton, New Jersey; Princeton University Press, 1964 7.
London: Oxford University Press, 1934. Print. [Taylor, Philip Meadows]. “Administration of India.” British and Foreign Review or European Quartely Journal 11: 21 (July 1840): 151 – 210. Print.
New Jersey: Prentice, 1966. 144-59. Forster, E.M. A Passage to India. New York: Harcourt, 1924. Kelvin, Norman.
New York: Henry Holt and, 2007. Print. Wolpert, Stanley A. A New History of India. New York: Oxford UP, 1977.
Works Cited Bolger, Dermot. A Second Life. Penguin Books: London, 1994. Forster, E.M. A Passage to India. Harcourt: San Diego, 1924.
Britain and India 1845-1947. London, Hodder Education, 2008 REES, Rosemary. India 1900-47. Harlow, Heinemann, 2006 Websites www.hisorylearningsite.co.uk: TRUEMAN, Chris & co. India 1900-1947 www.thenagain.info: KOELLER, David. India’s Independence from Britain 1947 www.open.ac.uk: Making Britain: 1947 quit India Movement www.bbc.co.uk: KAUL, Chandrika.
The history of the British colonization of India, from a commercial trade relationship to a relationship of control, is deeply tied to the manipulation of Islamic law as was previously practiced by the Mughal Empire. With the development of a 19th century sovereign nation state in India, the British found themselves increasingly in need of developing strategies of centralization and control. They responded to this need by borrowing preexisting concepts from Sharia that they modified in utilitarian ways to redistribute power from the hands of the Moghul rulers to British ones, and developed Orientalist philosophies that justified the colonizing project. In the process, the original application of Sharia was irrevocably changed, and remains to date substantially influenced by British common law. I will discuss these changes and manipulations in the light of the Ijtihad-taqlid controversy, Orientalism, and the dynamic between Sharia and the modern nation state.
Burgess, Anthony. Clockwork Marmalade, in: Listener, 17.February 1972, S. 197-199 "Contemporary Authors Online." The Gale Group. 1999. 27 Nov.1999.
Bengali 'Bhadralok' and Educational Development in 19th Century Bengal, Economic and Political Weekly 28 may 1988 2) Kumar, Krishna (2005), ‘Chapter 3, Appropriate Knowledge’, in Political Agenda of Education: A Study of Colonialist and Nationalist Ideas. Second Edition. New Delhi: Sage, pp: 49-72. 3) Macaulay, T. B. (1999).