Then in 1960, 69 peaceful demonstrators were killed, infuriating Mandela, causing him to lead a bombing campaign against official government sites and offices. Because of the campaign, he would then spend the next 27 years of his life in prison doing harsh labor in a limestone quarry. However, the battle wasn’t over yet, as these two demonstrators would continue to fight until the day of the overturn of Apartheid. Steve Biko on immense a... ... middle of paper ... ... that Mandela had abandoned his commitment because of who he was and the way he stress and preached non-violence. Despite this, both demonstrators were abused emotionally and physically, but still managed to improve the laws and mentality towards the black South African race in a peaceful way that is recognized today.
In 1975, South Vietnamese government surrendered the war after the communist forces forced them to surrender. Vietnam unified communism and became a Socialist Republic. Although decades have passed since the occurrence of the Vietnam war, the American culture, which was partly born as a result of this war, is celebrated today. President Johnson faced a lot of hostility from the public and the military, for wanting to escalate the war. Subsequently, he decided that it was time to end the war, and in 1969, Richard Nixon became the new president of the United States.
The Montgomery improvement association, which is best known as the M.I.A, organized a car pool of nearly three hundred cars to drive people that need transportation. The sprit and the unity of the Negro community was stronger than it had ever been. Many African-Americans prayed for this day to come for years until Rosa Parks made that happen. The Montgomery boycott officially started on December 1, 1955 and that same month but in the year of 1949 movement to desegregate the buss started. The movement started on the day in 1949 when a black profes... ... middle of paper ... ...osa parks also had an unpublished speech about the boycott and setting her people ( blacks) free.
The Viet Minh saw this opportunity, and urged the people to fight for food, and refuse to pay taxes. As a direct result of this, between 75 and 100 warehouses were raided. Following World War 2 the French decided that they wanted Indochina back. They did not have enough power though at the time, so they decided to look for help from other countries, such as Britain. Their attempt at retaking Vietnam was an utter failure, and the French retreated from Vietnam following their defeat at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu.
Nixon opened secret talks with the North Vietnamese and in 1975 Saigon eventually fell to the North Vietnamese because they lacked the support of the USA. It was the combination and the interaction between the different tactics of the armies, the media coverage, and the questioning of the war in the USAthat led the USA to withdraw its troops from Vietnam. The change in approach to foreign policies and war by the USA meant that it no longer wished to become embroiled in such a war. This was to last until after September eleventh when it began an aggressive foreign policy but it has been careful not to become fully engaged in foreign countries for long periods because of the humiliation it suffered in withdrawing from Vietnam.
It touches on subjects like the, how the privileged were not drafted, the split between the rich, and working class, and how the government will war support as black mail against it’s own citizens. Although, how did the United States end up in Vietnam in the first place? It all started with the French fighting a war against all of Indochina, and the U.S providing aid to the French in the late 1940’s. Even with the aid of America, Ho Chi Minh defeated the French in 1954, but America decided to become officially involved in an attempt to defeat the North Vietnamese communists. Eisenhower, addressed the United States with what he called the “Domino Effect,” basically stating that if we allow communism it will spread all over the world.
One of the promises he made was to end the Vietnam War. When the My Lai massacre was exposed in November of 1969 there was worldwide outrage and reduced public support for the war. Then a month later the first draft lottery was instituted since WWII. In April 1970, Nixon told the public he was going to withdraw large numbers of U.S. troops from Vietnam. So when he made his television address on April 30 to say we had invaded Cambodia the American people reacted strongly.
That number is most likely still increasing today. The activists in the 1960’s fought for equal rights of future American citizens and it didn’t go unappreciated. The events that occurred during the 60’s changed American history in a positive way. Racism is inevitable but all is well with the absolute protection of our civil right. After reading about how the racial divide impacted American society and how most citizens came together to protect one another’s civil rights I would say that our nation is living up to its professed ideals.
The Vietnam War events from 1964 to 1975 created tensions in politics, economics, and social aspects of American life. President Johnson believed in containment and the domino theory. Containment was to stop the spread of communism. Domino Theory was that if one country falls then more and more will start to fall as well, they were most worried about Southeast Asia. To stop the spread of communism President Johnson told Congress that North Vietnam attacked one of the American ships first.
This was a big turning point in the war because even though the Americans did not agree with the French, they gave the French $500 million a year towards the war effort to stop the communists taking control of North Vietnam. After an eight year war with the Viet Mihn the French were finally defeated at Dien Bien Phi In June 1954 America refused to sign the Geneva agreement because they now though that the balance of world power now favored the communists. After the Geneva agreement America started to pour aid, modern weapons and sent over military advisors. These advisors were sent there to train the ARVN incase of an invasion. Ho Chi Mihn escalated the guerrilla campaign because North and South Vietnam were to be joined together again.