The Effects Of Turbulence On Microalgae And Culture Medium Which Can Influence The Sensitivity And Productivity Of Microalgae

The Effects Of Turbulence On Microalgae And Culture Medium Which Can Influence The Sensitivity And Productivity Of Microalgae

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The literature review in this chapter mainly focuses on the effects of turbulence on microalgae, mixing in microalgae raceway pond, and the culture medium which can influence the sensitivity and productivity of microalgae.
2.1 Microalgae
In general, microalgae could be found in various environments (Tomaselli, 2004). Physically, most of the microalgae species are minimally photosynthetic plants including no roots, leaves, and stems (Lee, 1989). Some researchers investigate that microalgae have been estimated more than 40,000 species in the environments (Hu et al., 2008). A few isolated species are commonly shown in Figure 2.1 including (a) the spherical cells with large vacuoles are represented by Chlorellaceae (Sp14) type; (b) and (c) the elongated cylindrical cells and the spherical single cells are reported by Chlorellaceae (Sp1) and (T301) types, respectively; (d) the large coccoid cells containing zoospores are presented by Chlorococcaceae (T309) type; (e), (f), and (g) the spherical and ellipsoidal cells, the single and parental cells containing spores, and two and four cenobia cells with visible spines are shown in Scenedesmaceae (R3), GDK, and I3 types respectively; (h) the motile green ovoid cells with flagella are reported by Chlorococcaceae I1 type (Franziska et al., 2014). Also, all the detailed classification, biochemistry, and anatomy of microalgae can be determined in the literature (Barsanti and Gualtieri, 2005).

In term of natural cultivation, most of microalgae generally consume energy from the sunlight and the water with carbon dioxide to produce tons of cell masses. Moroney and Ynalvez (2001) state that the occurring photosynthesis on Earth relate to accounted microalgae 50%. Based on photosynthetic microorg...

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...eached by Etlin when they were grown on 5 mM nitrate comparing to 5 mM urea and ammonium. Moreover, the exact nitrate and phosphate concentration ratio (N:P) have to be considered during medium preparations also (Li et al., 2008). For instance, the wide ranges of N:P ratios could simultaneously adapt on the specific type of the cyanobacterium that is Oscillatoria agardhii between the lower growth rates at µ < 0.3 day-1 and the higher growth rates at 0.3-0.6 day-1 (Ahlgren, 1985). In addition, some researchers reported that nitrate uptake and reduction are able to be regulated by the light intensity, quality, nitrate concentration, and temperature tightly (Tischner & Lorenzen, 1979; Ullrich et al., 1998; Yang et al., 2013). Supporting growth rates during the exponential phase, a phosphorus reservoir needs to be condensed by phosphate into polyphosphate (Rhee, 1973).

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