Writh noted that despite women becoming increasingly active in economic activities they are still under-represented when it comes to senior management position. She supported this argument by pointing out that 40% of the labour force comprise of women. However, when it comes to top management position; only 20% are women (Writh 2001). This is as a result of a number of barriers which prevent women from function effectively. Family responsibilities, stereotypes that have led to gender discrimination, are perhaps the most notable factors. Despite this negativity women can still perform exceptionally well as senior managers; especially if effective work/life balance initiatives are undertaken.
Family responsibilities-such as childbearing, rearing and other common household duties which have traditionally been place on women- play are major role in hindering their career progress. These responsibilities reduce the competitiveness of women by adding to them other unpaid responsibilities that men usually do not face (Writh 2001; Adler & Izraeli 1994). This has had profound effect on the ability of women to pursue their career ambitions. Similarly, most employers have resulted in perceiving women as incapable of giving their employment full attention. Actually, evidence point out that women exit the workforce and/or accept part time job at higher rate than men in an effort to balance between the paid (employment) and unpaid (family responsibility) (Kochanowski 2009). Based on Kochanowski (2009) argument, this inability of women to consistently participate in career without breaking off to attend to other family responsibilities hinders them from gaining the necessary skills and experience needed ...
... middle of paper ...
Kraiser, G 2009, Analyzing the Occupational Sex Segregations, McGraw-Hill, New
Metz, S & Desile 2007, ‘Managing the Diverse Workforce: is Gender Discrimination a
Major Issue’, The Public Forum Journal, Vol. 5, no. 12, pp 34-60.
Mullins, LJ 2005, Management and Organisational Behaviour (7th ed),
Prentice Hall, New Jersey.
Moss, N 2002, ‘Choosing Between Family and Career Advancement: Tough Decisions
Facing Women’ Gender Management Journal, Vol. 12, no. 20, pp 142-58.
Smith, L & Collen 2007, Work-Life Balance and Productivity, Rutledge, London.
Shapiro, L & Worcester, S 2008, Gender Differences in Personality and Leadership
Traits: A review for Business Leaders, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.
Wirth, L 2001, Breaking Through the glass ceiling; Women in management,
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