Many believe that students should be motivated to write in order for them to be successful, however, Graham (2006) has found that writing development is shaped by all of these factors: strategies, skills, knowledge, and motivation. He defined motivation as “a heightened sense of efficacy about one’s writing capabilities”. Zumbrunn and Krause (2012) found that students need to have the opportunity to write in a nonthreatening classroom that is established by the teacher. Unfortunately, many teachers do not realize how their instructional methods contribute to their students’ lack of motivation. Students’ apprehension towards writing stems mostly from their fear of feedback and evaluation of their writing (Mascle, 2013). In...
... middle of paper ...
...Troia, G. A., & Graham, S. (2003). Effective writing instruction across the grades: What every
educational consultant should know. Journal of Educational and Psychological
Consultation, 14(1), 75-89.
Troia, G. A., Lin, S. C., Cohen, S., & Monroe, B. (2011). A year in the writing workshop:
Linking writing instruction practices and teachers' epistemologies and beliefs about
writing instruction. The Elementary School Journal, 112(1), 155-182.
Troia, G. A., & Olinghouse, N. G. (2013). The common core state standards and evidence-based
educational practices: The case of writing. School Psychology Review, 42(3), 343-357.
Wise, K. (2005). The importance of writing skills. Public Relations Quarterly, 50(2), 37-38.
Zumbrunn, S., & Krause, K. (2012). Conversations with leaders: principles of effective writing
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