The Drug Effects Of Morphine With The Presence Of The Environmental Stimuli

The Drug Effects Of Morphine With The Presence Of The Environmental Stimuli

Length: 735 words (2.1 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Better Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

Extra Credit- Article Summary
Previous studies have shown that lab rats developed tolerance to the drug effects of morphine with the presence of the environmental stimuli because of Pavlovian conditioning. The environmental stimuli contributed as a conditioned stimulus to the conditioned response, and the morphine drug stimulation was the unconditional stimuli. Also, theoretically as the relationship between the environmental stimuli and the unconditional response stimuli grows stronger, the weaker the drug effect will be. Crowell (1981) describes how environmental stimuli are conditioned in the experiments to the conditional drug response, the hypothermic effects of ethanol.
In the first experiment, there were 19 lab rats divided into two groups, and one group was injected with 20 doses of ethanol in a distinctive room and 20 saline solutions in the rats’ colony. The other group was injected with 20 doses of ethanol and 20 saline solutions in the reversed environment. Researchers hypothesized that tolerance to the ethanol and the compensatory conditional response to the saline injections would be shown only in the environments indicated ethanol injection after the ethanol injections, and they would not be shown in the environment indicating saline injection. Nineteen rats received ethanol and saline injection alternatively every other day, and the ethanol injections were consisted of 2 injections at 1.3g/kg, 5 at 1.7g/kg, and 13 at 2.1 g/kg. Also, in both environmental conditions, the room temperature was maintained at 21 Celsius degrees. The tolerance test sessions were performed in both groups after the tolerance development sessions in both environment conditions alternatively. The drug effect of ethanol was recorded by measu...


... middle of paper ...


...s supported that the conditional responses weakened by presenting the conditional stimuli without the unconditional stimuli.
This article is very interesting that by studying the rats in the lab, we can see how the drug users, environmental factors, and drug intertwined together. Tolerance develops when drug is repeatedly consumed. Not only the neuro changes are the reason why drug users develop tolerance, but also the environmental factors play a role in tolerance development. The second experiment demonstrated how the conditional responses can be weakened by presenting the conditional stimuli without the unconditional stimuli. This might be promising for the drug users who are trying to quit the drug; however, drug users can easily overdose on the same amount of drug they used to use because they are not aware of the weakened conditional responses in their body.

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Environmental Variables of Wayfinding in Emergency Situations Essay

- Wayfinding within complex buildings can be problematic under normal circumstances but can literally be life threatening during emergency situations, such as fires, terrorist attacks or natural disasters. While the role of signage in wayfinding is well known, in both everyday and emergency situations, it is not clear how environmental variables influence the users’ wayfinding behaviour, particularly when both types of information are competing. Such situations are very common because buildings are not always planned considering their actual purpose, such as the case of interventions in historical buildings, renovations and changes in buildings’ use....   [tags: signage, brightness, width]

Better Essays
1513 words (4.3 pages)

The Effects of Stress on Cells Essay

- Introduction Stress is a problem faced by all organisms in nature. It is a natural part of life as a response to stimuli. Over the years, it has developed different connotations, but stress is defined as the non-specific response of the body to any demand for change” (Selye, 1998). As such, even cells experience stress. Under some circumstances, short term stress may be beneficial to the cell; however, prolonged stress (especially in the Endoplasmic Reticulum [ER]) created by harmful stimuli such as heat, shock, oxidation, viruses, or other factors may lead to an overabundance of unfolded proteins (Szegezdi, 2007)....   [tags: biological and pathological analysis]

Free Essays
577 words (1.6 pages)

Essay on Social Presence and Modes of Communication

- We will first discuss the concept of social presence and its relationship to modes of communication. Following we will discuss the literature examining the use of video feedback to establish instructor social presence. Social Presence and Modes of Communication Historically, social presence has been closely related to the mode of communication used. Short, Williams, and Christie (1976) originally defined social presence as “the degree of salience of the other person” in mediated communication (p....   [tags: video feedback, immediacy, social presence]

Better Essays
1223 words (3.5 pages)

Essay on The Effects Of Enviromental Conservation On The Environment

- ENVIROMENTAL CONSERVATION Ever think of what would happen to the world without Mother Nature. Nature as a whole is a vital factor that is essential for the survival of man on this earth. Mother Nature is commonly perceived as the forces of nature controlling and regulating maternal being. It is also known as mother earth. It is characterized as an ecosystem where each organism has its own role to play. It is an occurrence of wonderful interaction of living things and their environment. Any time where an excessive activity or an external factor is introduced to an ecosystem, it can destroy the natural balance of the interaction and potentially harm the environment of the ecosystem....   [tags: Natural environment, Nature, Environmentalism]

Better Essays
1622 words (4.6 pages)

Essay On Environmental Effects On Environment

- EFFECT OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHANGES ON ENVIRONMENT “The sun, the moon and the stars would have disappeared long ago... had they happened to be within the reach of predatory human hands”. ~Havelock Ellis, The Dance of Life, 1923 Defining the Environment 10. Environment is not only about the trees, flora and fauna or animals. It encompasses a varied and large perspective of the existing world around us that we feel every day. It may be correctly defined as a “the sum total of all external conditions and influences affecting life and development of organisms or the complete society of living beings”....   [tags: Natural environment, Environmental science, Human]

Better Essays
848 words (2.4 pages)

The Effects Of Taste Stimuli On Heart Rate Essay

- In humans, taste and olfaction are used to distinguish nutrient rich foods from disadvantageous substances. Food stimulus has been shown to induce fast autonomic nervous system response, such as heart rate variations. Unpleasant taste stimulus has been correlated with tachycardia, an increase of the heart rate (Muroni, Crnjar, & Barbarossa, 2011). In a 2014 study, Chatsantiprapa et al. determined that moderate red hot chili consumption, a spicy stimulus, heightened arousal levels in the nervous system and temporary increased systolic blood pressure (Chatsantiprapa, Hurst, Thepsuthammarat, Thapunkaw, & Khrisanapant, 2014)....   [tags: Parasympathetic nervous system]

Better Essays
783 words (2.2 pages)

Essay about The Effects Of Environmental Influences On The Environment

- Pollution Pollution is associated directly, or indirectly, to the result of human activity. Without hesitation the origin of contamination is synthetic substances and contaminants unsuitable to the natural environment’s production or absorption. No spectrum of substances created by humans is the singular cause, but also the manner in which materials are managed, besides the fact they contain non-renewable and exhaustible materials, after use they become disposable trash put back into the natural environment, without understanding their long-term outcomes of the environment....   [tags: Human, Natural environment, Environmentalism]

Better Essays
1327 words (3.8 pages)

The Environmental Impact of Skiing and Tourism Essay

- It is extremely easy to forget the impact imposed by skiing on the mountain environments. Most people believe the only effect that they have on the environment within mountain regions are the tracks in the snow left by their skis. However, there is strong evidence that skiing has both a social and more noticeably, environmental impacts that influence the natural environment. Some experts of the Alpine region suggest that tourists directly affect over half of the Alps entire surface area. It can therefore be stated that the Alps are now one of the most threatened mountain ecosystems on Earth....   [tags: Environmental Issues]

Better Essays
1704 words (4.9 pages)

The Interior and Exterior Stimuli that Cause Pleasure Essay

- It is truly amazing how the brain works and reacts to stimuli that people find the most pleasure in. There is one part of the brain that controls the pleasure that the body feels through various actions such as sex, drugs, and even eating. The brain is working in more ways than one can imagine behind the scenes and this is what makes the human body such an amazing instrument. But sometimes the body makes it too good of a thing and it turns into addiction. There is a reward system that controls the feeling of pleasure through stimuli that can be physical such having sex or using drugs and mental such thinking about a significant other....   [tags: how the human brain works]

Better Essays
736 words (2.1 pages)

America Needs Environmental Equity Essay

- Introduction "...We live in a breakable takeable world, an ever available possible worldÖ" These words, by poet and singer-songwriter Ani Difranco, articulate the relationship between the environment and its inhabitants. Society is constantly manipulating the environment. Our capacity for changing the environment is kept in check by the destructible aspect of nature. The changes we make, those advancements in technology, are limited. While the industrial revolution, per say, is over, industry is ever expanding, moving us into a faster, more efficient lifestyle....   [tags: Environmental Racism]

Better Essays
3522 words (10.1 pages)