Essay PreviewMore ↓
The recent innovations in remote sensing methods have brought new solutions to study of environmental problems in geosciences. In the assessment of natural hazards like drought, remote sensing provides rapid, instant spatial data about the natural phenomena; they are useful in decision-makings as well as weather forecasts (Sunyurp et al., 2004). The monitoring of drought via remote sensing depends on the factors that cause drought (Jeyaseelan, 2005). Drought indicators and variables, obtained through remotely sensed data, can carry some uncertainties, which is induces by the sensitivity of factors, or their dependency to weather and environment conditions. Additionally, some non-standard algorithms might lead to wrong estimation of drought intensity.
More effective methods for increase accuracy of assessment and analysis of remotely sensed data are applying models which can combine in data layers. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are used to combine the layers of data in the modeling of drought. Recently, space technologies, such RS and GIS, and the numerical modeling techniques have been developed as powerful tools for the ecological assessment of environment (Krivtsov, 2004; MacMillan et al., 2004; Store and Jokimäki, 2003). Utilizing these technologies not only supply a platform to support multi-level and hierarchically integrated analysis on resource and environment, but also integrate the obtained information in a comparative theoretical ecosystem analysis. Meanwhile, Plummer (2000) argued that perspectives of combining ecological models and remotely sensed data would focus on the estimation of accuracy, the issues of spatial and temporal scale, and long-term comprehensive datasets.
How to Cite this Page
"Drought and Global Climate Change." 123HelpMe.com. 21 Aug 2018
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Global Warming, much of what does or does not happen forty years from now rests on our actions or inactions taken between now and then. The crucial question is whether we should pour all our resources into mitigation – reducing our carbon emissions. According to scientists who study the climate there are other environmental problems; “we now face a global crises in land use and agriculture that could undermine the health, security, and sustainability of our civilization”. Rather than worry too much about emissions, we should accept the world is going to get warmer anyway and adapt to global warming by building better flood defenses and developing drought resistant crops.... [tags: Climate Change Essays]
1069 words (3.1 pages)
- The world's forests provide many important benefits to the world - more than half of all species living on land live in the world’s forests. Global climate changes and the world’s forests are inescapably linked, the negative effect of global climate change on the world’s forest affects the human beings biologically and socio-economically. Global climate change is any significant change in measurements of climate such as temperature, pre¬cipitation, or wind. Leading indicators of Climate change is greenhouse effect where the atmosphere gases such as carbon dioxide traps solar radiation in the atmosphere.... [tags: Global Warming Essays]
967 words (2.8 pages)
- There is damage being done to the environment everywhere right this very moment. What is causing the damage. Global climate change contributes a great amount of devastation to the world every day. This is important because the change is affecting humans, animals, plants and just about anything else that is living. As a result of global climate change, regions, ecosystems, and agriculture will be greatly affected. There are many things causing global climate change such as the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation.... [tags: environmental damage, ecology]
1371 words (3.9 pages)
- Global Warming is a very controversial set words known worldwide. Global Warming is “the recent increase in the world's temperature that is believed to be caused by the increase of certain gases (such as carbon dioxide) in the atmosphere. (Merriam-Webster).” We have all heard the term Climate Change and/or Global Warming, but is it actually happening or is it a hoax. The phrases Global Warming and Climate Change are used by different people and used differently. Global Warming is used by scientifically people and is usually meant as a bad thing, that the earth is changing for the worse.... [tags: gases, atmosphere, normal]
1625 words (4.6 pages)
- CO2 and greenhouse gas emissions are at an all-time high. In May 2013, the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere exceeded 400 parts per million. This is “approaching the halfway mark between preindustrial amounts and a doubling of those levels” (Washington Post J). This is a very large increase in the amount of CO2 in our atmosphere over a short period of time. One might ask what consequence could come of having such a large volume of CO2 floating around our atmosphere. The Union of Concerned Scientists says that CO2 is considered a greenhouse gas.... [tags: CO2, Greenhouse Gases, Carbon Dioxide]
1008 words (2.9 pages)
- Global Climate Change Climate change is not a new concept; in fact there is evidence of major climate changes throughout the earth's history. However since the industrial revolution and especially since world war two, there has been an unprecedented change in the earth's atmosphere (Gates 4). As of March 1999, scientists reported the construction of a thousand-year record of the average temperature on earth. The results of their study concluded that a nine hundred-year cooling trend has been decisively reversed within the last fifty years (Bell and Strieber 9-10).... [tags: Global Warming Essays]
1520 words (4.3 pages)
- Exploring What a Drought Is Drought is a long period of dry weather when there is no rainfall at all for weeks, months or even years. Rivers and streams stop flowing. Water in pools, ponds, or reservoirs dries out. Plants die. Drought becomes a natural disaster. Some droughts occur for a very long period of time, and cause great hardship to people, plants and animals. Every year, droughts take place in many parts of the world, mostly in deserts. People plan for drought be storing water in wells, water tanks, etc.... [tags: Papers]
884 words (2.5 pages)
- Global Warming Global Warming, aside from pollution is one of scientists biggest concerns. Global Warming is caused by the Greenhouse effect. There are 4 steps in the Greenhouse effect process. The first is, sunlight radiates from the sun, through space, to the Earth’s atmosphere. The second is, sunlight enters the atmosphere and hits the Earth. Some of that sunlight turns into heat energy in the form of infrared light. Surrounding air and land, which in turn makes the heat warm, absorbs the heat.... [tags: Environmental Global Climate Change]
594 words (1.7 pages)
- Global Warming Global Warming is an important ecological issue and has many negative effects upon our environment. Global Warming, or what has been called the Greenhouse effect, is the result of a fourfold ecological process. 1-Sunlight radiates from the sun, through space, to Earth’s atmosphere. 2- The sunlight enters the atmosphere and hits Earth. Some of it turns into heat energy in the form of infrared light. The heat gets absorbed by surrounding air and land, which in turn makes it warm.... [tags: Environment Global Warming Climate Change]
609 words (1.7 pages)
- Global Warming Mission Plan a. Analysis of the Problem 1. History of the Problem Some scientist's have been concerned since 1896 about what might happen if there were 5.5 billion tons carbon dioxide in our atmosphere. In 1961 a British scientist did an experiment showing that the carbon in the air was absorbing some of the sun's radiation. Afterward a Swedish scientist, Suante Arrhenius, found out if the radiation of the sun was trapped in the carbon dioxide the temperature of the earth would increase by 1-2 degrees.... [tags: Environment Global Warming Climate Change]
2332 words (6.7 pages)
The main purpose of this study is to reduce errors and to improve efficiency and accuracy in the estimation of drought by remote sensing indices and the application of multivariate models. Therefore, this study introduces a new methodology for incorporating satellite data into an integrated fuzzy and AHP approach in order to model the accurate predicting of drought.
Fuzzy model is a logic system based on fuzzy set theory to approximation and reasoning of a system (Zadeh 1965, 1975). In other words, a fuzzy model provides a basis for reasoning, controlling and decision making of systems, even in uncertain conditions (Mahonen and Frantti, 2000). Fuzzy set theory deals with linguistic variables, which are converted from quantitative and qualitative variables. A fuzzy set includes the sets of adjectives of linguistic variables. Each fuzzy set is defined through a membership function (MF), which maps the input variable into fuzzy output. As a result, the fuzzy value indicates a degree of trueness, taking on from complete exclusion (0) to absolute inclusion (1). In other words, the membership value represents a certain degree of belonging of an object to a fuzzy set.
In recent years, there are a lot of successful fuzzy models such as hydrology model Chen (1997), multi-objective fuzzy optimum selection (Chen, 1994), fuzzy pattern recognition and fuzzy decision making.
The main reason of application of fuzzy model is the pre-existing and inherent uncertainty in data. In drought studies, the paucity of data and the unqualified data are restrictions. The acquisition of NOAA –AVHRR images faces with many limiting factors, such as uncertainty in the estimated spectral radiance and corruption in the sensors. Moreover, the spatial resolution of satellite images produces some certainties, namely, the effect of mixed pixels (Shalan et al, 2003).