Division of labor is an economic concept referring to a particular type of working divided in specific tasks and roles completed by an individual worker. This concept was popularized by Adam Smith in An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776) in the year of the American Revolution. In a three separate chapters of his work, in book one Smith is discussing the advantages and the results achieved by the so called divided labor tasks.
‘The greatest improvement in the productive powers of labor, and the greater part of the skill, dexterity, and judgment with which it is anywhere directed, or applied, seem to have been the effects of the division of labor. ‘
With this quotation, Smith is beginning his first chapter of Book I of his work. In that one sentence he is stating that the greatest improvements in the productive powers of la...
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...rker by seeing him only as a working animal – a beast reduced the strictest bodily needs’. He links class and the division of labor in the language of political economy which are turning man into a mere machine by ‘mortifying’ his body and ‘ruining’ his mind. He also argues that worker is alienated to his own labor, because ‘of the fact that more and more products of his production are being taken’ and his ‘existence is ‘increasingly concentrated in the hands of the capitalist’. Marx is not denying that the division of labor is in favor of the capitalism, but interferes human beings. It is only a contribution of a few. In his book ‘Division of Labor in Society’, Emanuel Durkheim is pointing out that because of that division, difference among people is expanding. They are unable to share common values and opinions or to form ‘organic’ , ‘mechanical’ solidarity.
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