Digestion is the breakdown of food that allows the body to absorb the food into the bloodstream and into the cells for energy. This happens mechanically and chemically, mechanically means by your teeth, tongue and gums so chewing food. Whereas chemically means by the digestive enzymes; amylase, protease and lipase.
Each part of the digestive system have an individual role/function;
The mouth is where digestion begins and the mechanical breakdown of food takes place. This is because the food is chewed and then broken down into little pieces by the teeth and the tongue, this process is called mastication, more commonly known as chewing. The saliva that the mouth is covered in, causes the food to be mixed into a lump called bolus.
The salivary glands secrete the enzymes that break the food down chemically, the enzyme amylase starts to break down starches into carbohydrates chemically.
In the pharynx, the food travels through a muscular tube called the pharynx, this then leads the food to the oesophagus. It passes down this muscular tube by swallowing the food, as this happens the larynx is contracting and the epiglottis snaps closed in order that the food doesn’t enter into the lungs.
The oesophagus is a muscular tube that leads to the stomach and the food travels along by peristalsis waves (this is a muscular movement that pushes the food). Then the muscles in the gut contract behind the bolus (the bolus is where the food is chewed into a soft flexible mass and delivered to the stomach). Once the bol...
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... or faeces, it empties these into the rectum, which starts the process of elimination.
The rectum is 8 inches, it is a chamber that joins the colon to the anus and it holds the stool until evacuation takes place, it lets the individual know that the stool will be evacuated and it receives stool from the large intestine. Anything that comes into the rectum, e.g. gas or stool, sensors send a message to the brain. Then the brain decides if the rectal contents can be released or not, if they can be released, the sphincters relax and so the rectum relaxes. But if the rectal contents cannot be released, the sphincters contract and so the rectum accommodates that the sensation will temporary goes away.
The last part/piece of the digestive system is the anus, this is a 2 inch long canal that consists of the pelvic floor muscles and 2 anal sphincters (internal and external).
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