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Deep-foundation elements comprise piles and piers and are like slender columns buried in the ground. They are prevented from buckling because they are confines by the soil. Piles and piers transfer the load either to bedrock or to soil of high bearing capacity while passing through unsuitable soil.
As previously stated, deep foundation are used where shallow foundation cannot be used because the topsoil is expansive or has a low bearing capacity or where the frost line is deep. They are also used in buildings that house items or instrumentation sensitive to settlement of shallow foundations.
Piles are generally driven into the ground, except concrete piles, which can also be site-cast in predrilled holes (boring method). Site-cast piles are called piers, or caissons.
Steel, reinforced concrete, prestressed concrete, and wood are commonly used as pile materials. Steel and concrete piles are generally used under heavier loads. Wood piles are limited in their load capacity because of the nature of the material and the limitations on the cross-sectional are of tree trunks.
Steel piles consist of H-shape, or shallow, pipes. Hollow steel piles are filled with concrete after being driven. Steel piles are susceptible to corrosion in some environments.
Precast concrete piles are generally solid, but hollow precast concrete sections have been used. Concrete piles are subject to attack by sulfur present in some soil, requiring the use of sulfate-resistant Portland cement. Wood piles are treated with creosote or CCA as a preservative.
The selection of piles for a building is a function of several factors, such as availability, cost, below-grade environment, load capacity of piles, and the equipment required to drive them.
Piles that transfer the load through friction created between the surface of the pile and the sold are called friction piles. They are generally tapered to a narrow cross section at the bottom to facilitate driving and to increase friction. Piles that transfer most of the load to the bottom strata, with very little through friction, are called end-bearing piles.
DETAILS OF THE PROJECT
-This project we have visited recently is about railway transportation (MRT) near Palm Spring, Kota Damansara (beside SHELL petrol station)
- The aim of this project is to make Malaysians life easier and more convenient in the case of travelling or getting somewhere quick.
- The total allocated by the government for this project is about RM43 billion
- This project should have started on 8 July 2011 and was planned to be completed by 2013, but due to some issues the starting date of the project was postponed to the year 2013.
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"Deep Foundation: Bored Pile Construction." 123HelpMe.com. 27 Jun 2019
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- For this MRT project, the railway starts from Sungai Buloh to Kajang.
- The transportation service line serves quick transportation between one place to another for the estimated population of 1.2 million people.
- The MRT line for this project will be constructed underground for the distance of 9.5Km. The 9.5Km includes 7 stations out of 31 stations throughout the whole railway line.
- The building team that is in charge of doing the pilling works near Palm Spring is Mudajaya Group Berhad.
- Mudajaya Group Berhad (“Mudajaya”) was incorporated on 6 February 2003 and the company is operating until now. Mudajaya is an investment holding company and its associated companies are involved in construction, property development, manufacturing, trading and the power sector.
MATERIAL, TOOLS AND EQUIPMENTS
Hydraulic bored pile machine
-Mudajaya uses bored piling as their piling method. Basically the auger rotates rapidly and spins off the soil from the flight as they insert the pile into the ground.
Drill fluid which consists of bentonite restrains particles of soil and for a layer of membrane over the sides of the borehole.
The boring continues through the bentonite, which should be fed into the hole to the right level as boring proceeds in order for maintanence of required counter pressure.
The concrete displaces mud which is pumped back into the storage tank as it rises up the borehole.
The short temporary casing is withdrawn as the concrete reaches the top of the hole.
On completion of this stage of boring, the hole is filled with bentonite slurry from the storage tank.