The teaching of reading has gone through numerous transformations and controversy continues over what is the best reading instruction. However, there is overwhelming evidence that the use of authentic literature and time for children to read, discuss what they have read and hear fluent readers, are critical to success.
Richard Allington has emerged as an expert on literacy education and continues to lead changes to instructional programs in the United States. He offers six critical elements of effective reading instruction. Those six elements are:
1. Every child reads something he or she chooses.
2. Every child reads accurately.
3. Every child reads something he or she understands.
4. Every child writes about something meaningful.
5. Every child talks with peers about reading and writing.
6. Every child listens to a fluent adult read aloud.
Allington states, “It’s time for the elements of effective instruction described here to be offered more consistently to every child, in every school, every day” (Allington, 2012, pp 14-15). When these six elements are included into daily literacy instruction students are able to make gains in their reading and writing abilities.
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