1.1 Big Geography and the Peopling of the Earth
1. Archeologists believe that the decisive differentiation between humans and apes occurred from 6 to 8 million years ago.
2. They have interpreted to different DNA analysis of bone fragments to show bipedalism. From the creature Ardepithecus ramidus, many different species of humans have developed from there.
3. Humans first appear on Earth in the Paleolithic Age where they inhabited all continents except for Antarctica. Homo sapiens had forelimbs freed from walking and opposable thumbs and also the development of the large brain.
4. The tools were created from wood, bone, and stone. They were created by breaking off the edges of stone cores to cr3eate points or cutting surfaces. Tools were used to help build huts of branches, stones bones, skins, and leaves and later on, allowed them to invent and sustain agriculture.
5. They survived through foraging for their food such as hunting for wild animals and gathering edible plants and also travelling in small groups. Division of labor based on sex in where men are responsible for hunting and women is for gathering.
1.2 The Neolithic Revolution and Early Agricultural Societies
6. The effects of Neolithic Revolution has got many people to switch to agriculture, populations increased since there is more food and domesticated animals. Patriarchy and forced labor systems developed giving elite men power over most of the other people.
7. Pastoral communities used domesticated animals, and are semi-nomadic and regularly leading their herds to fresh grazing lands. They are more socially stratified.
8. Economically, more people depended on agriculture for their source of food. And also division of labor, social inequality, ...
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...nd the officials would act as their eyes and ears since the rulers is not able to be there and rule each and every single land.
153. The Americas became the site for new colonies for Europe, Asia was used as a trading site and Europe was a place where civilizations grew and prosper.
154. They have either accepted and went along with it or the people would attempt to protest against the government’s methods.
155. Political rulers legitimize and consolidate by appointing to officials, and attempted to provide visual display of political power.
156. The rulers collected tax farming and used tribute collection to be use d for territorial expansion.
157. Imperial expansion was based on forced and using military technology to increase imperialism.
158. Europeans established and used maritime trade routes, the innovations of technology, and creating joint-stock companies.
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