The Lincoln Index is a method which is used to estimate and sample the size of closed populations. This method was discovered in by the American ornithologist Frederick C. Lincoln in 1930. The Lincoln Index provides a way to measure, sample and estimate population sizes of individual animal species. It is based on the capture, mark, release and recapture technique. The mark and recapture method involve random sampling of a population of animals and then mark all of the individuals that is captured in a recognizable way but is non-harmful and does not expose them to higher predation levels than non-marked individuals. The marked animals are then released back into the original population and left to mingle with the general population for a suitable period of time to allow complete remixing of the marked individuals with the population. Once they have become thoroughly mixed into the population again, the population is then resampled. There must be enough time allowed to elapse for complete mixing of the population to have happened.
This process can be simplified in equation, easy steps and symbols as follows:
n1 = number of animals first marked and released.
n2 = number of animals captured in the second sample
m2 = number of marked animals in the second sample
N = Total Population
m2/n2 = n1/N
N = n1 x n2 / m2
-If the number of animals recaptured in the second sample (n2) is less than 8, the estimation of the population is likely to be biased.
-If there are losses from the population during the remixing period, then the estimation would be for the size of the population at the time of the first sampling session.
-If there are gains in the p...
... middle of paper ...
...in size as a replacement for straw bits. As the data shows, some the proportion of marked straw bits in the first capture to the total population (n1/N) is not equal to the proportion of marked straw bits in the second capture to the total straw bits in the second capture (m2/n2). For example, 20(n1)/100(N)≠3 (m2 in the 4th trial)/10(n2). Since this is a random sampling, it is impossible to control the results especially the number of marked straw bits in the second capture. The container for straw bits is shaken for the mixing between marked straw bits and unmarked straw bits. However, it is not sure that whether the population is mixed thoroughly or not. Some marked straw bits may stuck in some corners with other straw bits even after the mix. Again this is a process of random sampling and it is unpreventable for the marked straw bits’ inability to mix thoroughly.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- My observations took place in two third grade general education classrooms and two elementary special education classrooms. Background information Special education classrooms (k-3rd grade in one classroom and 4th-6th in the other classroom). Students are primarily from middle class families. Both classrooms are very similar in set up. Teacher’s desk are located in the corner with several tables for students to sit at. This is a new building. Construction was completed only a few weeks before the school year began.... [tags: Special education, Education, Learning disability]
1239 words (3.5 pages)
- September 16, 2016 Production/Operations Management Project 2 The American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) is an economic guide that measures how satisfied customers are with individual firms and industries; with the quality of the products and the services available to them. It is a cause and effect approach to customer satisfaction. The private company is based in Ann Arbor, Michigan. It was formed in 1994 and was developed after the Swedish Customer Satisfaction Barometer (SCSB). In 2010, the public was permitted to access the information they had gathered.... [tags: Customer service, Customer, Index]
1030 words (2.9 pages)
- Background Information: N. E is a ten-year-old boy who attends 4th grade at North Bergen Elementary School. N. E currently has a 504 plan to ensure he receives accommodations that helps him achieve the academic success. The accommodations are made by the teacher, Ms. L, and includes shortening the tasks and giving him extra time to finish them. The background information was obtained from interviewing the general teacher, the information appears to be from a reliable and valid source, although, to confirm the information, it will be necessary to interview the parents, social worker and school psychologist.... [tags: Individualized Education Program]
1389 words (4 pages)
- ... Sometime between 1.8 and 1.7 billion years ago, the volcanic and sedimentary rocks were severely altered when chemical or structural changes occurred because of intense heat or pressure from the Earth's core. Because of this process, any fossilized information about the region was lost making it impossible to truly understand the origin of the region. There is some debate on whether basalt or schist was the original and dominate rock in the region before it was transformed into contorted gneiss, but again, there is no way to prove either theory.... [tags: elevation, dry, volcano]
1700 words (4.9 pages)
- Part 1: School and District Background Information The Conval School District became what it is today in 1988 (Appendix E). Conval has gone through a number of changes throughout the years. The region started with each town having individual schools representing kindergarten through high school. In approximately 1971 members of the Antrim school board explored whether to combine Antrim with the neighboring Hillsborough-Deering School District or the Peterborough School District. Members of the Antrim school board favored the Peterborough School district and eventually voted unanimously to consolidate with Peterborough.... [tags: High school, College, School district, School]
1173 words (3.4 pages)
- Background Information on Yeti The Yeti Rambler has taken off where it’s more expensive and luxurious brethren, the Yeti cooler, has left off. The explosion of demand for this particular cup is due to its highly engineered design, which features 18/8 stainless steel material and a double walled vacuum insulation, which keeps a drink hot or cold twice as long as plastic cups (“Frequently asked questions”, n.d.). The cutting edge cup also features a gasket lid that locks beverages inside of the cup, allowing one to move freely without fear of spilling (“Frequently asked questions”, n.d.).... [tags: Marketing, Pricing, Price, Marketing mix]
851 words (2.4 pages)
- What is Google. Google is a website that has not only transformed the way we process endless information found on the internet, but it has also altered the way we think and talk about the internet. Google is a multinational company that specializes in public computing and internet search technology; it is utilized as a search engine to research documents, news, and using different applications. Since the startup of the company, Google has grown to be recognized by many companies seeking to get more involved with Google and how they intended to change the way people look up information on the Internet.... [tags: Business Analysis ]
2176 words (6.2 pages)
- Background Information on Nickel Nano wires can be made out of many different matierals to fit the specific need of the scientist. They can be made out of alloys, elements, oxides, and other materials. Additionally, they can be tailors to fit specific geometric requirements. In the semiconductor industry, when the demand for transistors is extremely high, many elements are experimented with. As time goes on, and technology advances, more and more objects can be put onto a substrate. A very common element that nanowires are being created and researched with is Nickel.... [tags: Chemistry]
2325 words (6.6 pages)
- Background Information on the Hospitality Industry The Food and Hospitality Industry has become one of the biggest employers in our state. It now has attained a much higher status in society and demands high standards of work from its employees. Employment opportunities are many, but eagerly sought by a vast majority of people. For this reason as in any other established business, interviews are conducted. Through these interviews, the interviewer looks for personal qualities and interpersonal skills in a prospective employee to fulfill the job requirements.... [tags: Food and Hospitality Industry Essays]
1231 words (3.5 pages)
- I. BACKROUND INFORMATION Jill Stacey Moreland(born Itabari Njeri) was born in Brooklyn, New York. She started off as being a singer/actress; but she found a calling in journalism. She obtained her B.S. from Boston University, and then later on she received her M.S. form Columbia University. She worked as a writer for numerous projects, and then was the author of three books. She wrote “Family Portraits and Personal Escapades,” “The Challenge of Diversity”, and “Reflections of a New World Black.” Currently Jill Stacey does public speaking at Universities about memoir, multiculturalism, and ethnic conflict.... [tags: essays research papers]
672 words (1.9 pages)