Bonds between atoms affect outer electrons that are shared or transferred to achieve a more stable electrons arrangement as a noble gases. This essay is divided into three main sections it will first describe how the ions, ionic, covalent and metallic chemical bonds are formed. It will then go on to explain the types of bonds which can form given the position of the periodic table and the forces required to hold the molecules together. The final part of the essay will define electron pair repulsion theory and the shapes of molecules.
Ions are an electrically charged atom formed by the loss or gain of an electron, occurring in the outer shells and depends on where the electrons fall in the periodic table. Ions are formed of a single atom (monatomic) or along two elements together (polyatomic) these can be anions or cations depending on if they are negative or positive charged ions. Noble gases elements have full outer main levels electrons when atoms bond together they share or transfer electrons to obtain a more stable electron arrangement. Ionic bonding occurs between metals and non-metals atoms. Metals atoms have one to three outer shell electrons they will achieve a more stable electron arrangement if they lose these electrons, on the other hand, non-metals will need to gain electrons to achieve a noble gas electron structure. Potassium chloride (KCl) is an example of an ionic bonding, potassium outer shell has one electron and chlorine outer shell seven, as a result, potassium outer electron transfer to chlorine making the both elements with outer main levels full. The electron is transferred from metal to non-metal, making potassium a positively charged due to loss of one electron and chlorine negatively charged becau...
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...g, it happens when hydrogen bonded with fluorine, nitrogen and oxygen as well. The nitrogen-hydrogen-oxygen system is linear, all the shapes of molecules are three dimensional and different one from the other. Electrons around the molecules remain in pairs, each pair repels other electrons pair cause a repulsion moving as far apart possible. The shape of a simple molecule depends on the numbers of electrons around the nucleus. If there are two pairs of electrons around the atom the molecule is linear, with three pairs a molecule is a trigonal plane; with four pairs is tetrahedron; with five pairs will be a trigonal bipyramid shape and with six pairs around the nucleus, the shape of the molecule will be octahedral. A few molecules have a lone pair of electrons affecting their shapes, as water and ammonia. Ammonia has a triangular pyramid and water a v-shaped molecule.
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- Bonding Bonds between atoms affect outer electrons that are shared or transferred to achieve a more stable electrons arrangement as a noble gases. This essay is divided into three main sections it will first describe how the ions, ionic, covalent and metallic chemical bonds are formed. It will then go on to explain the types of bonds which can form given the position of the periodic table and the forces required to hold the molecules together. The final part of the essay will define electron pair repulsion theory and the shapes of molecules.... [tags: Atom, Electron, Ion, Chemical bonding]
946 words (2.7 pages)
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1071 words (3.1 pages)