The biggest difference from all the previous compounds is that sodium hydroxide is highly corrosive, this is the reason it was given the name caustic soda. This compound is soluble in water, ethanol, and methanol. Sodium hydroxide is made by using the chloralkali process which is an industrial process. Sodium Chloride is then electrolyzed and sodium hydroxide is made in the cathode. A cathode is a type electrode where electrons move.
It also has good resistance to ketones, ordinary diluted acids and alkalies. EPDM rubbers are produced by polymerizing ethylene and propylene with about 3–8% of a diene monomer to provide a cross-link site for fast vulcanization with sulphur. EPDMs are available in a range of molecular weights, varying levels of ethylene and oil content. EPDM can be compounded to meet specific properties up to certain limit, depending on the processing and curing method employed. The EPDM rubbers differ significantly from the diene hydrocarbon rubbers as level of unsaturation in the former is much lower hence rendering much better heat, oxygen, and ozone resistances.
Table 1.1: Types of Ion Exchange Resins with Decreasing Preferences. Strong Acid Cation Exchanger Strong Base Anion Exchanger Barium Iodide Lead Nitrate Calcium Bisulfite Nickel Chloride Cadmium Cyanide Copper Bicarbonate Zinc Hydroxide Magnesium Fluoride Potassium Sulfate Ammonia Sodium Hydrogen On the other hand, a column process works similar to a plug flow reactor where it is like treating the solution through infinite numbers of batch tank. Column process is much preferred due to the high efficiency and lower reactor size to achieve the same conversion as compared to a batch process. Even using a resin with low selectivity for the ions in the solution, desired degree of separation is still possible. Selecti... ... middle of paper ... ...pposite of the recycle method since this process goes from strong brine to weak brine regeneration.
Electrolytes Electrolytes are liquids that conduct electricity. Most need to be dissolved into water or another solvent. Battery¡¦s have an electrolyte in them, either as a liquid or as a paste. Liquid electrolytes are used in electrolysis, electroplating, and other chemical processes. When electrolytes dissolve they release positive and negative ions.
Based on the table, many crystals will form once cooling is done. Since the solids should be insoluble when the solvent is cold and soluble when the solvent is hot, a mixture of solvents might be best for Solid B. However, based on the table, there does not seem to be an appropriate mixture to make the desired solvent. None of the available solvents will dissolves the solids when the solvent is hot. 23.
: Polymers can be very resistant to chemicals. Polymers can be bother thermal and electrical insulators. Generally, polymers are very light in weight with v... ... middle of paper ... ...d products. The resulting chemicals can then be used to make new plastics that can be in disguisable form the initial or virgin polymers. Feedstock recycling: the thermal depolymerisation of polyolefin's and substituted polyolefin's (large molecules made up primarily of the elements carbon and hydrogen such as polyethylene) into a variety of smaller hydrocarbon intermediates is termed as feedstock recycling.
Thus, ionic compound form crystal, they have a high melting point and known to dissolve evenly in aqueous solutions. Water molecules have conduction properties, which makes the dissociation process conducive. Consequently, this physical states will contribute to the ionic compounds to conduct electricity. ( Ian Guch and Cavalcade Publishing, 1998-2009) Next, electrolytes are ions when in its molten stage in an aqueous solution carry a negative or positive charge. For that reason, electrolytes that dissolve completely in water are call strong electrolytes and electrolytes that partially dissolve in water are call weak electrolytes.
The high melting and boiling points are attributed to ionic compounds forming ionic lattices, in which the ions arrange in a regular pattern to form crystals. The ions surround themselves with as many oppositely charged ions as possible, therefore the bonds are therefore difficult to break. The bonds require a high energy level in the form of relatively high temperatures to break apart. Although melting and boiling ionic compounds require high energy, most ionic compounds are soluble in water. The ions of within the compound reacts with water (H2O), which energy is able to break the ionic bond as well as the water molecules.
The chemical change is that in which the material loses or gains electron (oxidation or reduction). The process is proceed in an electrolytic cell, an apparatus consisting of positive and negative electrodes placed apart and placed in a solution contains positive and negatively charged ions. The material to be transformed can be form the electrode, may constitute the solution, or may be dissolved in the solution. Electric current enters through the negatively charged electrode (cathode) positively charged components of the solution travel to this electrode, combine with the electrons, and are transformed to neutral elements or molecules. The negatively charged components of the solution travel to the other electrode (anode), release their electrons, and transformed into neutral elements.
[Lister & McLean ] • Catalyst: The most widely used catalyst for PEM fuel cells is Platinum. Platinum catalyst layers are rough and porous to give larger surface area for Oxygen and Hydrogen to react with Pt. They can be as particles as well. [Wang 2011] • Current collectors, GDL and bipolar plates: Current collectors are made of graphitic materials due to its good conduction. GDL gas diffusion layers are made of carbon paper, which has low electronic resistance in order to provide maximum electronic contact and prevent water flooding.