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An atom, by definition, is the smallest part of any substance. The atom has three main components that make it up: protons, neutrons, and electrons. The protons and neutrons are within the nucleus in the center of the atom. The electrons revolve around the nucleus in many orbitals. These orbitals consist of many different shapes, including circular, spiral, and many others. Protons are positively charged and electrons are negatively charged. Protons and electrons both have charge of equal magnitude (i.e. 1.602x10-19 coulombs). Neutrons have a neutral charge, and they, along with protons, are the majority of mass in an atom. Electron mass, though, is negligible. When an atom has a neutral charge, it is stable.

Isotopes refer to 1 of 2 or more atoms with the same atomic number but different numbers of neutrons. The atom copper has two stable isotopes. They are 63Cu and 65Cu. 63Cu has an isotope atomic mass (in amu) of 62.9295989 and a natural abundance (in atom %) of 69.17. 65Cu has an isotope atomic mass (in amu) of 64.9277929 and a natural abundance (in atom %) of 30.83. The averag...
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