# An Experiment to Find Out How Much Gas is Given Off When Hydrochloric Acid and Marble Chips React

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An Experiment to Find Out How Much Gas is Given Off When Hydrochloric Acid and Marble Chips React

Aim
===

The aim of this experiment is to find out how much gas is given off by
marble chips when they react with hydrochloric acid. This will tell me
if the concentration of hydrochloric acid affects the speed of
reaction.

Variables
=========

I could change: the temperature, the percentage of hydrochloric acid,
the number of marble chips, or the size of the marble chips.

I will change the percentage of hydrochloric acid there is for the
marble chips to react with.

I will keep the temperature, the number of marble chips, and the size
of the marble chips the same. I will do all of the experiment on the
same day so that the temperature will be the same. If the temperature
increases the reaction would happen quicker, because the particles
would move around faster, so there would be more collisions. If the
temperature decreases the reaction would be slower, because the
particles would have less energy, and move slower. To keep the amount,
and the size of the marble chips the same, I will count out the number
of marble chips, and I will only pick chips of similar size. The more
marble chips there are and the smaller the size of the marble chips,
the more surface area there would be, so the quicker the reaction, and
there would be more gas produced. I will do this so that the
experiment is fair.

I could measure the rate of reaction by measuring how fast the
products are formed, or I could measure how fast the reactants are
used up. For this experiment I will measure the rate of reaction by
measuring how fast the products are formed, measuring the volume of
the gas given off over a certain amount of time. This would be more
accurate, because it would be easier to measure.

Fair Test

To make it a fair test, I will measure the amount of gas given off

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### Popular Essays

every 10 seconds for 2 minutes. This will mean taking 12 readings for
each percentage concentration of hydrochloric acid. I will do this for
6 different concentrations of hydrochloric acid-100, 90, 80, 70, 60,
and 50 percent. This will allow me to measure the rate at which the
gas is given off. . I will repeat the whole experiment three times.
This will ensure that the results I will collect are as accurate as
possible, and will reduce the effect of any anomalous results.

Safety

When undertaking this experiment I will wear goggles to protect my
eyes. I will be careful not to spill any of the liquid during the
experiment. I will do these two things because I will be using
hydrochloric acid, which is highly corrosive.

Prediction

I predict that as the percentage of hydrochloric acid is increased,
the rate at which the gas produced by the reaction will increase. I
predict that at 100% there will be more gas produced than at
percentages below this.

I predict this based on the collision theory. Chemical reactions occur
when different molecules collide. In this experiment, the rate at
which the reaction happens depends on the concentration of
hydrochloric acid. The higher the percentage of hydrochloric acid the
more collisions between the molecules there will be. The more
collisions there are between the molecules, the faster the gas is
given off, the more gas given off.

Apparatus/Chemicals

2 molar hydrochloric acid

2 measuring cylinders
Marble chips

Stopwatch

Tub

Delivery tube + bunge

Diagram
=======

[IMAGE]

Method
======

I will take the apparatus, and set it up, as it is in the diagram
above. I will take five small marble chips that will be the same size,
and put them into the conical flask. Then, I will fill the tub ¾ full,
and place one of the measuring cylinders in it, making sure that no
air bubbles are let into it (I will do this by filling the measuring
cylinder with water, placing my hand over the top, and lowering the
cylinder into the tub). I will measure out 100% of hydrochloric acid,
and then I will pour it into the conical flask. As quickly as
possible, I will place the cork on top, and start the timer. Gas
bubbles will push the water out of the measuring cylinder; I will take
this reading every ten seconds, for two minutes. These recordings will
measure how much gas was given off by the reaction between the marble
chips and the hydrochloric acid. This experiment then needs to be done
for 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90 percent. I will measure the percentages out
by filling the measuring cylinder up to the amount needed (e.g. 5ml up
for 50%), and then filling up to 10ml with water. Each of the
percentages needs to be carried out three times, to make it a fair
test.

Preliminary Work

To help me with the experiment, I did a preliminary investigation. The
experiment was to find out if the strength of the hydrochloric acid
and the size of the marble chips used affects the speed of reaction.
To work this out, I used different concentrations of acid, and
different size marble chips. I timed how long the reactions took, how
fast the reactants had been used up.

Results of the Investigation

Concentration of Acid

Size of the Marble Chips

Reaction time (minutes)

1 molar

Big

1.12

Small

0.51

2 molar

Big

0.52

Small

0.28

5 molar

Big

0.26

Small

0.16

Conclusion

I found that the higher the concentration of hydrochloric acid the
quicker the reaction time. For my current experiment I will use molar
2 hydrochloric acid, because the 5 molar was too quick, and the 1
molar was slightly too slow.

I also found the smaller the marble chips the quicker the reaction
time. I have chosen to use the small marble chips for the experiment
because the reaction with the big marble chips happened too slow. The
smaller chips reacted quicker because there was more surface area, and
there were more collisions.

The results of this investigation helped me to decide what to use in
the current experiment. This is because I found out which
concentration of acid, and which size marble chips to use.

Table to Show the Amount of Gas Produced (cm3)
==============================================

When Hydrochloric Acid and Marble Chips React
=============================================

Results table
=============

% Acid

Time (seconds)

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

110

120

100

1

4

9

11

15

17

20

25

29

31

46

48

2

7

15

20

26

31

36

41

47

51

55

59

5

12

17

23

29

33

39

44

48

52

57

61

90

3

5

9

14

16

20

24

28

31

35

38

41

0

0

3

5

6

9

11

14

16

19

22

24

3

6

9

11

13

16

18

21

24

27

28

31

80

3

5

7

10

14

18

22

26

28

32

35

38

0

1

4

6

9

11

14

16

19

22

25

28

0

3

5

8

11

14

16

19

22

24

27

30

70

0

1

4

7

9

10

13

15

17

19

21

23

1

4

9

12

16

18

22

25

27

31

34

37

0

0

1

2

4

5

9

11

12

14

16

18

60

0

0

2

2

3

5

6

8

10

11

13

15

0

0

0

2

3

4

5

6

7

10

11

13

0

0

0

0

0

1

2

3

3

4

5

7

50

1

2

4

6

9

10

13

15

17

18

19

21

0

1

2

3

4

6

8

9

11

12

14

15

0

0

1

1

2

5

8

10

11

13

14

16

Average amount of gas produced for each percentage

% ACID

Time (seconds)

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

110

120

100

3

8

14

18

23

27

32

37

41

45

53

56

90

2

4

7

10

12

15

18

21

24

27

29

32

80

1

3

5

8

11

14

17

20

23

26

29

32

70

0

2

5

7

10

11

15

17

19

21

24

26

60

0

0

1

1

2

3

4

6

7

8

10

12

50

0

1

2

3

5

7

10

11

13

14

16

17

Graph to Show the Results
=========================

[IMAGE]

=======

Text Box: Anomalous result

v All of the points plotted on this graph are averages of the results
collected for each percentage.
=====================================================================

Conclusion
==========

As the percentage of hydrochloric acid is increased, the amount of gas
produced by the reaction increases. At 100% there was more gas
produced than at all of the other percentages below this.

These results support, and are consistent with the prediction that I

The results are consistent with the collision theory. The rate of the
chemical reactions in this experiment depended on the concentration of
hydrochloric acid. The higher the percentage of hydrochloric acid the
more collisions between the molecules there were, because there are
more molecules. The more collisions there were between the molecules,
the faster the rate of reaction, (the faster the gas was given off,
the more gas given off). Increasing the concentration increases the
pressure, making the molecules more ‘squashed up’ together; this means
there is going to be more collisions. As the concentration of
hydrochloric acid is increased, the rate of reaction increases.

[IMAGE]

[IMAGE]

[IMAGE]

[IMAGE]

[IMAGE]

[IMAGE]

[IMAGE]

50% 100%

There is twice the percentage in B than in A. The reaction in 100%
will be faster because there are more acid particles than in 50%, so
there is a greater chance of the acid particles colliding with the
marble chips and reacting. When the percentage of acid is increased so
does the number of acid particles.

At 100% hydrochloric acid, an average 56ml of gas had been given off
after 2 minutes, whereas, at 50% an average of 17ml was given off.

Evaluation
==========

The results that I have collected are accurate and reliable in that
they are consistent with the prediction that I made. Each set of
results is not all that accurate because within that set of results
there was quite a bit of variation. This could be improved by redoing
the experiment under more controlled conditions. To make the
experiment more controlled, I could make sure that the temperature is
the same and make sure that the size of the marble chips are exactly
the same.

The whole of 60% hydrochloric acid was anomalous. The amount of gas
given off with 60% of hydrochloric acid was less than expected; it was
less than the amount of gas given off at 50%. There is no scientific
explanation for this, but there are several reasons why the results
could be like this. The experiment was carried out on several
different days; I had not planned for this. Therefore this could
easily have changed the temperature at which the reactions took place,
changing the results. If the temperature increased, then the molecules
would have moved around faster. This means that there would have been
more collisions between the molecules, making more gas. If it got
colder, then it would have been the opposite. The molecules would have
moved around slower, causing fewer collisions, therefore making less
gas. The other explanation is that the percentage of hydrochloric acid
was measured out wrongly. This is fairly unlikely as the experiment
was repeated three times, and the entire set of readings for 60% were
all of the same sort of value.

The method I used meant that the size of the marble chips varied. I
took five chips that I thought, by eye were the same size, I did not
weigh them or make sure they had the same surface area. This will have
affected the results I have collected, therefore making the
reliability of my method questionable.

Some of the apparatus I used to carry out this experiment was
unreliable; this could have affected my results. In the time between
pouring the hydrochloric acid into the conical flask, and placing the
cork in the top, some of the gas produced by the reaction escaped into
the atmosphere. To improve the reliability, a way needs to be found in
which the cork can already be in place when the hydrochloric acid is
added, so that the gas will be measured from the start.

Extension Work
==============

I could change the temperature at which the reaction occurs, to see if
this has any effect on the amount of gas produced.

Variables

I would change the temperature at which the reaction between the
marble chips and the hydrochloric acid occur.

I would keep the percentage of hydrochloric acid, the amount of marble
chips, and the size of the marble chips the same. I will do this by
precisely measuring out the hydrochloric acid using a measuring
cylinder, counting out the marble chips and weighing them.

I would measure the temperature by using a thermometer. I would
measure the rate of reaction by measuring how fast the gas is formed.

Fair Test

To make it a fair test, I would take 12 readings for each temperature,
and I would repeat each temperature three times. The temperatures I
would measure would be 10, 20, 30,and 400C.

Safety

When undertaking this experiment I would wear goggles to protect my
eyes. I would be careful not to spill any of the liquid during the
experiment. I would do these two things because I would be using
hydrochloric acid, which is highly corrosive.

Prediction

I predict that as the temperature is increased the amount of gas
produced would increase. I predict that at 400C there would be more
gas produced than at the other temperatures, and at 100C there will be
less produced than at all of the other temperatures.

I have made this prediction on the theory that as molecules are heated
up they expand, and move around faster. This would then cause more
collisions between the molecules, creating more gas.

Method

I would take five small marble chips that will be the same size, and
put them into the conical flask. I will measure out an amount of
hydrochloric acid, in a beaker, and I would place it in a tub with a
heating element and thermostat in it. Then, I will fill another tub ¾
full, I would place one of the measuring cylinders in it, making sure
that no air bubbles are let into it (I will do this by filling the
measuring cylinder with water, placing my hand over the top, and
lowering the cylinder into the tub). When the hydrochloric acid is
heated to the right temperature I would pour it into a conical flask.
As quickly as possible, I will place the cork on top, and start the
timer. Gas bubbles will push the water out of the measuring cylinder;
I will take this reading every ten seconds, for two minutes. These
recordings will measure how much gas was given off by the reaction
between the marble chips and the hydrochloric acid.