Osteoporosis, which literally means "porous bone", has a variety of definitions, depending on the source. The National Osteoporosis Foundation uses a very simple and straightforward definition by stating that "Osteoporosis is a disease of the bones. It happens when you lose too much bone, make too little bone or both"3. Some definitions provide more specifics citing potential causes and target demographics. The Webster-Merriam dictionary defines it as "a condition that affects especially older women and is characterized by decrease in bone mass with decreased density and enlargement of bone spaces producing porosity and brittleness". DictionaryOnline defines osteoporosis as "a medical condition in which the bones become brittle and fragile from loss of tissue, typically as a result of hormonal changes, or deficiency of calcium or vitamin D". Finally, eMedicineHealth defines it as "thinning of the bones, with reduction in bone mass, due to depletion of calcium and bone protein. Osteoporosis predisposes a person to fractures, which are often slow to heal and heal poorly. It is most common in older adults, particularly postmenopausal women, and in patients w...
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28. Lerche Davis, Jeanie, Reviewed by Nazario, Brunilda MD. (2009). Osteoporosis: The Effects of Smoking on Bone Health. WebMD. Retrieved from: http://www.webmd.com/osteoporosis/living-with-osteoporosis-7/smoking-cigarettes
29. Wagh, Manasee. (June 18, 2013). Press Release: Penn Researchers Pinpoint How Smoking Causes Osteoporosis. The University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved from http://www.upenn.edu/pennnews/news/penn-researchers-pinpoint-how-smoking-causes-osteoporosis.
30. Danjun Ma, Yan Li, et al. (2012). Smoke-Induced Signal Molecules in Bone Marrow Cells from Altered Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein 5 Mice. Journal of Proteome Research 2012 Jul 6;11(7):3548-60. doi: 10.1021/pr2012158.
31. Nordin, Christopher B. E. MD, FRCP, FRACP, DSC. (1997). Calcium and Osteoporosis. Nutrition 12:664-686.
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