Going into details with thermally activated concrete slabs, there are several thermo active slab systems that could be applied all with the same concept but the difference is according to the position of the pipes. For example capillary tube systems were the pipes are fixed under the concrete slab which is not that much efficient as it doesn’t take advantage of the thermal mass capacity of concrete. Second under floor temperature control in which the pipes are embedded under the floor which is also not that much efficient as cooled air moves down ward not up wards so it will not be suitable for cooling but for heating. Concrete core temperature control in which the pipes are embedded in the concrete core proved to be the most efficient system that’s why in this section it will be explained into details.
Concrete core with temperature control
In active systems, the building structure is activated to store the thermal energy and discharge it when required. This process takes place on three phases “charging”, “storage” and “discharging”. First charging, circulating cold or hot water through the embedded pipes in the slab, the slab will be charged with cooling or heating energy depending on the water temperature. There are different techniques to control charging by water flow rate and charging period. Second storage, during day time excess heat produced from building occupants and devices is transferred to the slab which increases its temperature, the time between the heat supplied from the slab and demanded by the room is the storage period. As for discharging, it happens in a complete passive way without any external influence as 60% of energy is transferred by radiations and 40% by convection.
... middle of paper ...
...e heat or cooled to be charged during the night period to be stored and released when temperature increases in the morning. The excess energy charged and stored is to avoid wide range of variation in room temperature still this method is not that much efficient as it is not precisely controlled. Second, continuous operation, this operation method is only available when ground or ground water is used without any restrictions so cooled water is charged into the slab continuously; this method is more efficient with cooling energy than heating energy. As for control operation, there are several factors that are taken into consideration in this method as the outdoor temperature, indoor temperature and the temperature difference between energy source and the activated mass to be able to control the supplied temperature, rate of water flow and the source of heat needed.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Concrete for Water Retaining Structure Author: Aritra Pal; Entry No. 2013CEC8314 1.0 Introduction: The Aim of this study is to select a better choice of water tight concrete for the water proofing construction of water retaining structures like tanks, reservoirs, swimming pools etc. This paper includes the study of early age & later age properties of concretes with Chemical Admixtures & Supplementary cementecious materials, from the aspect of water tightness & durability. 2.0 Principle of Water Tightness: • Concrete should be dense & durable • Concrete must have the capacity to withstand hydrostatic pressure without water seepage.... [tags: waterproofing construction]
2055 words (5.9 pages)
- The usage of concrete was explored by the Early Christian and Roman architects but fell out of use throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance period. The material was only fully explored again in the later half of the 19th century but only for mundane purposes where the material was cheap, easy to work with, and versatile, but most importantly it’s fireproof characteristic. In 1870, the idea of reinforcing the concrete was born; steel rods were to be inserted to increase its strength. Taking this principle, Ernest Ransome (America) and Francois Hennebique (France) both developed frame systems.... [tags: Ernst Ransome, architecture, concrete]
2583 words (7.4 pages)
- Concrete poetry presents its readers with a unique and often confounding situation. In addition to using language or parts of language in non-traditional ways, concrete poetry also uses elements that are more commonly associated with visual art. However, concrete poetry is not visual art. It is still concerned, primarily, with the use of language, generally to communicate some meaning to the reader in a way that is undeniably linguistic in nature. Concrete poetry is therefore an especially unique genre that draws upon and incorporates many different concepts from a variety of disciplines in order to fill in the gaps left when traditional grammar and syntax are eschewed.... [tags: Concrete Poetry Analysis]
2413 words (6.9 pages)
- PROPERTIES OF HIGHLIME FLY ASH CONCRETE ABSTRACT Fly ash is a waste product from coal based thermal power stations. About seven million tons of fly ash is being produced annually from these thermal power stations in Turkey. Concerted efforts are needed to make the material used to a great extent. These paper give the results of an investigation on the performance of fly ash concrete made with ASTM C class fly ashes from two sources. PC42,5 cement used in the experiments conforms to TS19 (Turkish Standards).... [tags: Concrete]
1756 words (5 pages)
- Reactive powder Concrete 1. Introduction Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC) was developed by P. Richard and M. Cheyrezy and was first produced at Bouygues’ laboratory in France2 early 1990s. In July 1997, the Sherbrooke Bridge in Quebec, Canada3, became the world’s first structure to be constructed entirely out of Reactive Powder Concrete. Due to its extreme low permeability it is also being used for containment of nuclear waste in Europe4. Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC) is basically a special concrete where the microstructure is optimized by precise gradation of all the constituent particles to produce a maximum possible density.... [tags: modern construction materials]
1050 words (3 pages)
- Standards-based education has been a prevalent theme within educational rhetoric since the release of A Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Education Reform in 1983; the report had been compiled by President Ronald Reagan's National Commission on Excellence in Education. The report described the state of education across America, stating that nearly 10% of the American population was “functionally illiterate”, the private and military sectors were spendings tens of millions of dollars on remedial education and training programs, and that the United States had fallen dangerously behind its industrialized international competition (U.S Department of Education).... [tags: Common Core in LA Schools]
3198 words (9.1 pages)
- It is common knowledge that steel structures revolutionized building design during the early 20th century. It is less well known, however, the impact concrete has had on building design - particularly in skyscrapers. Concrete is an old building material, dating well back into prehistoric times. Yet its application for building tall structures was only truly begun to realized in the early 20th century. Concrete systems in skyscrapers are a unique brand of structure. They incorporate many different elements, and have a variety of different requirements.... [tags: ancient romans, building design]
703 words (2 pages)
- Concrete today is considered by many modern engineers and architects as a more efficient and effective alternative to steel n regards to the creation of buildings, ranging from low-story apartments to neck-breaking skyscrapers. Through the rapid growth and development of the world's major metropolises and growing cities, concrete today has become one of the most important building materials to date. According to the World Business Counsel for Sustainable Development (WBCSD), “it has become the most consumed substance on earth, only superseded by water, with three tons for each person used annually” (World).... [tags: Recycled Waste, Carbon Emissions]
949 words (2.7 pages)
- According to major supplies, “Use of synthetic fibers for reinforcing concrete is continuously, increasing. The increase has been considerable since 1980, but slowed somewhat in 1990, a year of substantial construction cutbacks. Apparently the construction community believes there are advantages in the use of synthetic fibers in concrete.” (Schupack) Synthetic fibers are used to improve crack control in concrete. Some reports say that synthetic fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) would replace welded wire fabric in many slab-on-grade applications.... [tags: essays research papers fc]
605 words (1.7 pages)
- Arizona Concrete According to the Mine Faculty at the University of Arizona, cement is manufactured primarily from suitable limestone and shale rocks. Arizona had two dry-process cement plants in 1969, namely the Arizona Portland Cement Company plant in Pima County, near Tucson, and the American Cement Corporation plant at Clarkdale, in Yavapai County (52-53). The use of cementing materials goes back to the ancient Egyptians and Romans, but the invention of modern portland cement is usually attributed to Joseph Aspdin, a builder in Leeds, England, who obtained a patent for it in 1824.... [tags: essays research papers fc]
1361 words (3.9 pages)