The method employs data mining techniques such as a frequent pattern and reference mining found from (Holland et al., 2003; KieBling & Kostler, 2002) and (Ivancy & Vajk, 2006). Frequent and reference mining is a heavily research area in data mining with wide range applications for discovering a pattern from Web log data to obtain information about navigational behavior of the users. The frequent and reference patterns from their research can be classified into page sets, page sequences and page graphs.
The used of descriptive statistics to extract knowledge from Web log has been introduced by Srivastava, Deshpende & Phang (2000), by analyzing the session files and perform statistics of user interaction such as frequency, mean, and median on variables i.e. page views, viewing time and length of a navigational path. Additionally, Web logs file analysis using statistical approach proposed by Stermsek et al.(2007) allow for a broader perception of user behavior and potential to improve user profiling. Their approach includes several methods such as statistical inference, graph analysis and profile generation: (1) Statistical inference is from pre-processed web log data, (2) structure analysis for selecting a certain structure on the website (e.g., soccer news), then perform structure of the Website related to user’s interest on soccer news and (3) Graph analysis o...
... middle of paper ...
... of Web Personalization to customize services (e.g. content and items) to the needs and prefer user or group of users. This is clear in the adaptive Web, where acceptance is to meet the needs of users (Agrawal, 1999; Mobasher et.al., 2000).
There are different approaches for representing user profiles. For example, Mobasher et.al. (1999) and Kang et.al. (2001) analyze URLs to get the user’s preference from Web logs. Additionally, Mobasher et.al. (1999) combined Web usage mining and content mining for effective personalization. Shokry and Ajinanth (2006) used clustering techniques to obtain user’s preference.
From literature review, the method of representing UP can be classified in three methods: (1) graph representation, (2) tree, (3) XML, and (4) RDF. The following briefly described method of UP representation in Web personalization, as presents in Table 8.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- ... Keywords: WebInformation gathering, local instance repository, ontology, personalization, semantic relations, user profiles, world knowledge. I. INTRODUCTION The web-based information available to the user has increased drastically and to gather useful information from the web is a challenging issue for the users. The web information gathering systems attempt to satisfy user requirements by creating user profiles. User profiles represent the users concept models possessed by them while gathering web information.... [tags: ontology models]
590 words (1.7 pages)
- The 21st century presents a different world than that of the 19th or even 20th centuries. Humans have continuously learned to move through eras. Mankind negotiated the leap from the industrial to the information age with relative ease. The advent of the knowledge age brings new challenges. Qualifications that satisfied the requirements of the past centuries give way to assessments relating to the ability to learn and bend with industry change. The human capacity to learn is paramount in economic success and the ability of the individual in reaching full potential in the home, at work, or in his community at large.... [tags: knowledge acquisition, learning, performance]
1321 words (3.8 pages)
- The subtlety of language acquisition has been the most fundamental question in the study of linguistics and human development. From Bow-wow Theory to Yo-He-Ho Theory, major theories on the origins and learnability of language have emerged in mid-20th century and heavily debated ever since. Among them, the idea of universal grammar in which is usually credited to linguist Noam Chomsky, remains the most notable and controversial theory over time. He introduced and developed the theory from 1950s to 1970s, as he proposed and championed linguistic nativism in language acquisition.... [tags: universal grammar, language acquisition]
1384 words (4 pages)
- Appropriate English Language Learners Assessment Language acquisition has been a topic of great controversy for several decades. During this time several approaches to English language acquisition have been developed and implemented throughout the nation. School districts nationwide have implemented these approaches in their classrooms and have trained their teachers in efforts to meet national, state and local requirements set forth by educational reform such as No Child Left Behind (Abedi, 2004).... [tags: education, teaching]
723 words (2.1 pages)
- The aim of this essay is to explore language acquisition and compare and contrast different theories of language acquisition and language development. Language in its most basic form is used to communicate our needs and wants. It encompasses a range of modes of delivery including signing, spoken and written words, posture, eye contact, facial expressions and gestures. So how do we learn ‘language’. Are we born with the skills for communication, or is it something that we have to learn or have taught to us.... [tags: Language Acquisition, Language Development]
2926 words (8.4 pages)
- User According to the innovation based research, has been found to play a significant role in determining the success of new product research (O'heocha and Conboy, 2010). Users and consumers have been believed to play an overriding role in innovation process across wide range of industries. Literature has highlighted the varying role of user involvement related to different sectors. Slow moving sectors involve a great user involvement contrary to the high paced technological industry. Innovation has been viewed as a coupling process which is initiated by the minds of imaginative people.... [tags: innovation, crowdsourcing, user involvement]
1776 words (5.1 pages)
- With the increasing popularity of dual immersion programs in schools and the widespread notion that language acquisition is something that needs to happen early on life, is there an ideal age to learn a second language (L2). Wilder Penfield and Lamar Roberts first introduced the idea that there is a “critical period” for learning language in 1959. This critical period is a biologically determined period referring to a period of time when learning/acquiring a language is relatively easy and typically meets with a high degree of success.... [tags: Second Language Acquisition]
1492 words (4.3 pages)
- Possessing a language is a quintessentially human trait, yet the acquisition of language in children is not perfectly understood. Most explanations involve the observation that children mimic what they hear and the assumption that human beings have a natural ability to understand grammar. Behaviorist B.F. Skinner originally proposed that language must be learned and cannot be a module. The mind consisted of sensorimotor abilities as well as laws of learning that govern gradual changes in an organism’s behavior (Skinner, B.F., 1957).... [tags: Chomsky, Language Acquisition]
2175 words (6.2 pages)
- India Places .com About Us India Places is the premium website on tourism that gives details about the important tourist’s places in India. It covers the whole lot of places across the country. Every part of the country is covered under this. The most sought after places in India that people wants to visit, all the details regarding the important tourist’s spots, locations to visit, the details of hotels and resorts to stay are provided on the site.... [tags: Business Profile ]
857 words (2.4 pages)
- Language is perceived as the way humans communicate through the use of spoken words, it involves particular system and styles in which we interact with one another (Oxford 2009). Possessing this ability to communicate through the use of language is thought to be a quintessential human trait (Pinker 2000). Learning a language, know as language acquisition, is something that every child does successfully within a few years. Language acquisition is in itself the development by which humans acquire the ability to perceive, produce and use words to understand and communicate.... [tags: Language Acquisition]
1370 words (3.9 pages)