Gastroenteritis is inflammation of the lining of the stomach and small and large intestines (Schlossberg, 2015).It is commonly caused by viruses, bacteria and parasites. Rotavirus infection is responsible for the most severe forms of gastroenteritis. The most common bacterial causatives of gastroenteritis are Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, non-typhoidal Salmonella, Campylobacter species, Shigella species and Salmonella typhi (Black et al., 2010). Protozoans such as Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica have been identified as serious causes of diarrhoea in Africa and other parts of the developing world (Black et al., 2010).These microorganisms are transmitted from one person to another through the faecal–oral route. This occurs if people touch their mouth after touching an object contaminated by infected faeces, or if infected people do not wash their hand thoroughly after a bowl movement (Boyce, 2010). In the case of an epidemic, large numbers of people become infected by eating food or drinking water that has been contaminated by infected faeces (Boyce, 2010). Most foods can be contaminated with bacteria and cause gastroenteritis if they are not thoroughly cooked or pasteurized. Contaminated water is sometimes ingested in unexpected ways, such as when swimming in a pond contaminated by stool from an animal or in a swimming pool contaminated by stool from another person. In some cases, gastroenteritis is acquired through direct contact with animals that carry the infectious microorganism (Boyce, 2010). Less common causes of gastroenteritis include chemical toxins and drugs. The most common clinical manifestation of gastroenteritis is diarrhoea, which is the frequent...
... middle of paper ...
...roenteritis, adults are given 250 mg of Azithromycin once a day for 3 days and children are given 5 to 10 mg/kg once a day for 3 days (Boyce, 2010). Azithromycin suspension can be difficult to administer to young children because it has a bitter taste, and most young children tend to spit it out (Boyce, 2010). People suffering from typhoid are given 500mg of Azithromycin three times and day (Effa et al., 2011). Azithromycin has been suggested to be better at treating typhoid in resistant populations than both fluoroquinolone drugs and ceftriaxone (Effa et al., 2011). Most common side effects are diarrhoea (5%), nausea (3%), abdominal pain (3%), and vomiting. Less than 1% of patients stop taking the drug due to side effects. As with all antimicrobial agents, pseudo-membranous colitis can occur during and up to several weeks after Azithromycin therapy (medicnet, 2014.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Viruses, bacteria, and prions are all quite different, but they all share one commonality: they can all cause disease in humans. All three are also organic, in one way or another. Despite this, only bacteria are properly alive by most definitions. Bacteria are also the most complex, followed by viruses, and then finally, prions. Bacteria As mentioned in the introduction, bacteria are the most complex organizations that will be covered in this paper. Bacteria were among the first forms of life to evolve on Earth about 3.5 million years ago.... [tags: disease, health, proteins]
1195 words (3.4 pages)
- Bacteria are unicellular organisms called prokaryotes. Viruses are pieces of biomolecules that cannot reproduce independently. Both groups may be pathogens, or may be beneficial- sometimes, the same species or variety may be both, depending on circumstances (Starr, C., and Taggart, R., 2004.) Throughout history, pathogens and more helpful species have played vital roles in the development of humanity as a species and of the human social arrangement. Prokaryotes are divided into eubacteria and archaebacteria.... [tags: Health]
1251 words (3.6 pages)
- Many people get viruses, prions, and bacteria confused in multiple ways. However, these are different in several aspects, and once informed about them, people should no longer get them mixed up. For example, the most important and most unique differences between bacteria, prions, and viruses is that bacteria is a living organism, prions are not living organisms, and the debate regarding the living status of viruses has been, and still is, running on without the slightest sight of a resolution. Other pieces of evidence differentiating these is the way they reproduce, the way that they look, as in their shape and size, and the diseases that they cause and can help cure.... [tags: Molecular Expressions Cell Biology]
998 words (2.9 pages)
- In the lesson on bacteria and viruses, students will understand the differences between bacteria and viruses and how the spread of them has influenced history. The lesson will integrate math, reading and social studies in order for students to attain the lesson objective. Integration of math will include graphing and analyzing data. Integration of reading and social studies will include reading articles for main ideas and research on how diseases have influenced history. Along with integrating other content areas into the science lesson, it also accommodates different learning styles.... [tags: Lesson Plan]
899 words (2.6 pages)
- Viruses, Bacteria, Prions Bacteria is essential to humans to not only be able to live, but also to be able to live on Earth. Bacteria is also essential for good health. The typical structure of bacteria includes; cytoplasm, nucleoid, flagella, pili, and a cell wall with a capsid. Bacteria is found in the Large Intestine, where it makes Vitamin K. It also helps provide a taste for yogurt and sourdough bread. Bacteria is used to digest cellulose for animals such as cows, sheep, and goats. Bacteria is prokaryotic, and appears as many different shapes.... [tags: microbiology essential to humanity]
966 words (2.8 pages)
- We’ve all heard of viruses, bacteria and the diseases they can harm us with, but many of us haven’t even heard of prions and most people probably don’t know specific details about viruses or even bacteria for that matter. They’re all very interesting forms of organic matter, though. Bacteria are the only one of the three that are actually considered life forms 100%. The topic of whether or not viruses are to be considered an organism is very debatable in the world of microbiology, because they don’t actually have even a single cell, but they reproduce and have many other things in common with organisms.... [tags: proteins, health, disease]
1173 words (3.4 pages)
- Features of Bacteria, Viruses and Fungi Infectious diseases are diseases or illnesses (caused by bacteria or viruses) that can be transmitted from person to person or from organism to organism by touch or the exchange of blood or saliva and also could be passed through air molecules. For instance, the common cold and AID's are infectious diseases, whereas illnesses such as diabetes and gout are non-infectious diseases. Simple Hygiene: Because many cold viruses are spread by contact with infected secretions, frequently washing the hands, carefully disposing of used tissues, and cleaning items and surfaces can help to reduce their spread.... [tags: Papers]
1918 words (5.5 pages)
- I am writing this research paper on the differences and similarities between bacteria, viruses, and prions. In this paper I will define each of the subjects that I am comparing and tell and show you how they are different and how they are similar. I will also tell you about their structure, how they reproduce, and a disease that is caused by each of them. I will first start with defining all three subjects. Bacteria are known as large groups of unicellular microorganism that have cell walls but lack organelles, a nucleus, and bacteria are also prokaryotic.... [tags: dna, rna, cells, living hosts, binary fission]
1093 words (3.1 pages)
- Part A: Bacteria vs. Virus Bacteria are known to have distinct structural characteristics and evolutionary lineage. Rods (bacilli) and cocci (spheres) are common bacterial shapes. In addition, bacteria may be comma-shaped (vibrio), spiral (spirillum and spirochetes), or filamentous; they may form buds and stalks; or they may have no characteristic shape (pleomorphic). Some cells remain together after division to form pairs, chains, and clusters of various sizes and shapes. Frequently observed bacterial cell structures include a cell wall, plasma membrane, cytoplasm, nucleoid, fimbriae, inclusions, capsule, ribosomes, and flagella.... [tags: Immune system, Bacteria, Protein, Gene]
1716 words (4.9 pages)
- History Francisella tularensis is a bacteria that is commonly referred to as Rabbit Fever. This microorganism is often known as this because the bacteria resides in mammals such as rabbits, squirrels and mice (UPMC Center for Health Security, 2013). There are many different components to this bacteria that make it unique. The microorganism F. tularensis is one that has very unique characteristics that make it responsible for being the kind of bacteria that it is. It is a gram-negative bacteria that occurs in coccobacillus form.... [tags: Bacteria, Immune system, Infectious disease]
1742 words (5 pages)