Transmission Of Gastroenteritis, By Viruses, Bacteria And Parasites Essay

Transmission Of Gastroenteritis, By Viruses, Bacteria And Parasites Essay

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Transmission of Gastroenteritis
Gastroenteritis is inflammation of the lining of the stomach and small and large intestines (Schlossberg, 2015).It is commonly caused by viruses, bacteria and parasites. Rotavirus infection is responsible for the most severe forms of gastroenteritis. The most common bacterial causatives of gastroenteritis are Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, non-typhoidal Salmonella, Campylobacter species, Shigella species and Salmonella typhi (Black et al., 2010). Protozoans such as Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica have been identified as serious causes of diarrhoea in Africa and other parts of the developing world (Black et al., 2010).These microorganisms are transmitted from one person to another through the faecal–oral route. This occurs if people touch their mouth after touching an object contaminated by infected faeces, or if infected people do not wash their hand thoroughly after a bowl movement (Boyce, 2010). In the case of an epidemic, large numbers of people become infected by eating food or drinking water that has been contaminated by infected faeces (Boyce, 2010). Most foods can be contaminated with bacteria and cause gastroenteritis if they are not thoroughly cooked or pasteurized. Contaminated water is sometimes ingested in unexpected ways, such as when swimming in a pond contaminated by stool from an animal or in a swimming pool contaminated by stool from another person. In some cases, gastroenteritis is acquired through direct contact with animals that carry the infectious microorganism (Boyce, 2010). Less common causes of gastroenteritis include chemical toxins and drugs. The most common clinical manifestation of gastroenteritis is diarrhoea, which is the frequent...


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...roenteritis, adults are given 250 mg of Azithromycin once a day for 3 days and children are given 5 to 10 mg/kg once a day for 3 days (Boyce, 2010). Azithromycin suspension can be difficult to administer to young children because it has a bitter taste, and most young children tend to spit it out (Boyce, 2010). People suffering from typhoid are given 500mg of Azithromycin three times and day (Effa et al., 2011). Azithromycin has been suggested to be better at treating typhoid in resistant populations than both fluoroquinolone drugs and ceftriaxone (Effa et al., 2011). Most common side effects are diarrhoea (5%), nausea (3%), abdominal pain (3%), and vomiting. Less than 1% of patients stop taking the drug due to side effects. As with all antimicrobial agents, pseudo-membranous colitis can occur during and up to several weeks after Azithromycin therapy (medicnet, 2014.

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