Studies have been performed to show gender differences in temperament. Else-Quest, Hyde, Goldsmith, and Van Hulle (2006) used meta-analytical techniques to estimate the gender differences in children from 3 months to 13 years across 35 dimensions and 3 factors of temperament. The three broad factors used to present the findings from the studies were identified by Shiner and Caspi (2003) as effortful control, negative affectivity, and surgency. The overall purpose of the study was to determine the magnitude of gender differences in dimensions of temperament and identify the modifiers that may be causing these gender differences.
The factor of effortful control is composed of attention regulations, inhibitory control and perceptual sensitivity (Else-Quest et al., 2006). In relation to effortful control, the factor itself and nine other dimensions were examined. Else-Quest et al. (2006) states that “dimensions included distractibility and persistence from the behavioral style approach; attention from criterial approach; and attention focus, attention shifting, inhibitory control, interest, low-intensity pleasure, and perceptual sensitivity from the psychobiological approach” (page #). The gender differences in effortful control were very large (Else-Quest et al., 2006). Gender differences in attention, attention focus, and low-intensity pleasure were significant yet small (Else-Quest et al., 2006) Attention shifting and perceptual sensitivity displayed a sm...
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...ifferences depends on the context (Hyde 2005). It cannot be assumed that a gender difference is a social construct.
Costa, P. r., Terracciano, A., & McCrae, R. R. (2001). Gender differences in personality traits across cultures: Robust and surprising findings. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81(2), 322-331. doi:10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1242
Davies, A. C., & Shackelford, T. K. (2006). An evolutionary psychological perspective on gender similarities and differences. American Psychologist, 61(6), 640-641.
Else-Quest, N. M., Hyde, J., Goldsmith, H., & Van Hulle, C. A. (2006). Gender differences in temperament: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 132(1), 33-72. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.132.1.33
Feingold, A. (1994). Gender differences in personality: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 116(3), 429-456. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.116.3.429
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