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    The RNA world

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    acid is a large part of the modern world as RNA (Ribonucleic acid) is one of the major macromolecules which are known for playing an essential role in all known forms of life. The most common function of RNA is that it is a copy of DNA and is used to create proteins and other organic compounds. To produce a certain protein, it activates the area of DNA that codes for a specific protein needed. Thus it replicates that section of DNA in the form of messenger RNA. Ribosomes are then used to translate the

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    Messenger Rna Synthesis

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    different step. That is to make RNA from DNA. RNA is important for a lot of different functions but I will only talk about messenger RNA here, which is used to synthesize protein from. RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) is synthesized in the nucleus and is very similar to DNA. The synthesis of RNA also involves the use of bases, but in RNA synthesis no thymine (T) is used but uracil (U) is used instead. The sequence of RNA corresponds to the sequence of DNA from which the RNA is synthesized (see the figure below)

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    Essay On RNA Silencing

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    RNA silencing refers to the process by which the expression of one or more genes is down regulated or entirely suppressed by small non-coding RNAs. It is also referred to the introduction of an anti-sense RNA molecule on gene expression. RNA silencing is also defined as sequence-specific regulation of gene expression that is triggered by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). RNA silencing mechanisms are highly conserved in almost all of the eukaryotes. The most common and well-studied example of this is RNA

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    What Are Micro RNA

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    What are micro RNAs? Micro RNAs (miRNA) are small non-coding RNAs that are involved in regulating the translation of messenger RNA (mRNA). Over 1000 miRNAs have been identified which control approximately 60% of the protein coding genes1. The miRNAs are on average 23 nucleotides long, with nucleotides 2-7 acting as the seed region. The seed region is needed for specific mRNA interactions and mutations occur in this region it can disrupt the miRNA, mRNA Watson-Crick base pairing2. mRNA is stabilized

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    RNA and Human Genome

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    transcripted into RNA that does not code protein [1],which popularly called non-coding RNAs(ncRNAs). These transcripts fall into several classes based on their length, biogenesis, polarity (sense or antisense), and putative functions. A classification set it as long and small ncRNAs depending upon length of the transcript. Small ncRNAs include Piwi-interacting RNAs(piRNAs), small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), microRNAs(miRNAs), and some bacterial regulatory RNAs[2]. By contrast, the long noncoding RNAs(lncRNAs)

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    Short Interfering RNA

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    missing figures Background Information RNA inference (RNAi) was first discovered in Cenorhabditis elegans nearly a decade ago and have been revolutionizing gene-function analysis ever since. This discovery began the process by which scientists work with a known gene sequence and attempt to define its biological function by disrupting its activity in vivo. It involves the introduction of homologous double stranded RNA (dsRNA) to specifically target a gene's product and to disrupt the function

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    Essay On RNA Interference

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    In 1998, the concept of RNA interference (RNAi) was first discovered and added to the complexity of post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in cells (Fire, 1998). The RNAi phenomenon was originally discovered in Caenorhabditis elegans where the injection of double-stranded RNA resulted in the decreased expression of genes with highly homologous sequences to the injected nucleic acid sequence. In the first step of the mechanism of RNAi, double stranded RNA is converted cleaved into short

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    1.1 Non-coding RNAs The central dogma of molecular biology states that genetic information is conveyed from DNA to mRNA to protein implying that proteins are the main functional genetic output (Crick 1970). Even those few early known non-protein-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) such as transfer RNA, ribosomal RNA, snoRNAs and splicosomal RNAs were in the end required for mRNA processing and translation. The dogma might still be applicable to prokaryotes whose genome consists of approx. 90 % protein-coding

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    The DNA Structure and Function Compared to the RNA Nucleotides polymerise by forming bonds between carbon 3 of the sugar and an oxygen atom of the phosphate. This is a condensation polymerisation reaction. The bases do not take part in the polymerisation, so there is a sugar-phosphate backbone with the bases extending off it. This means that the nucleotides can join together in any order along the chain. Many nucleotides form a polynucleotide. A polynucleotide has a free phosphate group

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    The Role of Micro RNAs in Gene Regulation

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    Micro RNAs (miRNA’s) are created from microgenes and are a molecule that is aproximetly 22 base pairs in length, they are thought to coordinate the expression of genes that are protein coding in eukaryotes. Over 1000 have been discovered and they seem to compromise a secondary level of control that is likely to coordinate the genome function in humans and other complex organisms (Elliot and Elliot) It is also known that these miRNA help initiate the degradation of mRNA and prevent the translation

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    process of the heart is related to altered expression of genes that are important for cardiac function. Thus, micro RNAs have become known as key regulators of gene expression and the recent studies have suggested the potential importance of micro RNAs; as diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets for many big diseases including cardiac diseases. Deregulated expression of micro RNA has been linked to the development of cardiovascular disease. The regulation of cardiovascular development requires

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    Rna Synthesis Lab Report

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    first, and that transformation process is transcription. RNA is similar to DNA; however, DNA has the nitrogenous base thymine while RNA has uracil as a nitrogenous base. RNA and DNA are known to be complementary, being that the two bases pair with each other. Transcription is the synthesis of ribonucleic acid, RNA, using genetic information found within the DNA. Transcription creates the RNA molecule from the DNA genetic information, and this RNA molecule is known as the messenger ribonucleic acid,

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    DNA vs. RNA: Oncogenic Viruses

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    Every single living organism has deoxyribonucleic acid, but their cells vary. Some viruses use RNA though. The deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, found in organisms contain all the instructions necessary for creating different proteins that have different functions, but the molecule cannot leave the nucleus; this is where ribonucleic acid, or RNA, comes into play (Hall, 7). Deoxyribonucleic acid has multiple different components that come together in a structure that differs to the structure of ribonucleic

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    Research Paper: Duplexes of 21-nucleotide RNAs mediate RNA interference in cultured mammalian cells Overview The significance of this experiment is that it shows how siRNA suppresses the expression of genes in different mammalian cells. It was known previous to the experiment that dsRNA can trigger apoptosis in cells- this is an automatic defense mechanism that mammalian cells use to protect against the dsRNA possessed by viruses. The dsRNA can cause RNA interference when it is taken into the

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    sequence of MEX-5 determine its RNA-binding specificity? The CCCH-type TZF proteins recognize their RNA targets though a template of H-bonds between the amide and carbonyl groups of the protein backbone and the Watson-Crick edges of the bases (ref Hudson, Teplova). This observation suggests that in CCCH-type TZF proteins any variation of the primary sequence that results in a change of the backbone conformation alters the pattern of interactions between the protein and the RNA molecules and therefore the

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    which is transcribed into RNA to create protein. Students however, are not taught of RNA Interference, the biological process where RNA molecules inhibit a gene’s expression, RNAi for short. While RNAi is a fairly new discovery, its use in modern biological research is groundbreaking. RNA Interference works by binding Double-stranded RNA molecules (siRNA) to a complementary messenger RNA. The enzymes Dicer and Slicer then cleave the chemical bonds which hold the messeger RNA in place and prevent it

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    Effect of miRNA on complex-forming proteins We studied the global correlation between protein complex association number and the number of miRNA target-site types at the 3′ UTRs of the gene encoding the protein. Interestingly, we have noticed a significant negative correlation between them (ρnumber of miRNA hits vs. protein complex association number = -0.102, P = 2.0×10-2, N = 513 [TargetScan]; ρnumber of miRNA hits vs. protein complex number = -0.191, P = 3.8×10-2, N = 118 [miRWalk]) (Supplementary

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    Messenger RNA (mRNA) determines the sequence of amino acids in protein. At first, DNA is decoded. After that, each sequence of bases on one of the chains of DNA molecule is transcribed into a sequence of mRNA, and then translated into the amino acids that build the protein as a combination of a triplet. 2/ The sequence of DNA that encodes a protein are amino acids. 3/ The process that produces RNA by reading DNA is the DNA transcription process. 4/ The process that produces protein by reading RNA is the

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    worm's physical traits) to better understand how human genes function in the body. The researchers who performed this study "fed" the worms double stranded RNA that encodes for a particular gene. The cells of the nematode's body recognize the double stranded RNA as foreign genetic material and delete all proteins associated with that RNA. Therefore, the C. elegans will not express the targeted gene, and in its absence, scientists can identify the normal phenotypic expression of that gene. For example

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    replicase complexes has been demonstrated in a number of plus-strand RNA viruses (1, 24), including the Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV). In BaMV it has been reported that chloroplast phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) (25) and HSP90 (Huang et al., unpublished data) are required for the efficient accumulation of BaMV; where as the identity of the additional factors associated within the BaMV RdRp complex, and the proteins involved in satBaMV RNA replication are not yet been acknowledged. This study identified a

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