Monism is a concept believed by Greek philosopher Aristotle (384-322 BCE), in which everything is one, including reality. According to Turner (2016) lecture notes, this belief then is separated into four categories; physical, idealist, neutral, and panpsychism theories of monism. Physical monism, proposed by Aristotle and Democritus (ca. 460-370 BCE) is materialism, where the “universe is composed of a single substance”. The operations of the mind are simply seen as the operations of the brain, it is a single substance, in which is” responsible for generating and controlling bodily and mental states”. Without the brain, we are dead. Idealism is a belief, in which everything is a product of one higher mind. This contrasts to physicalism, as ideas or thoughts are unified to be controlled by God. Mastin (2008) noted that “the real things are mental entities, not physical material, which only exist in the sense that they are perceived”. Neutral monism, by William James (1842-1910) and Bertrand Russel (1872-1970) believed that the ultimate reality can be perceived as either physical/mental. There is not much care for which property it is, therefore only focuses on that it is only one thing. (Thales, 624-545 BCE) viewed panpsychism, as the fact that “everything exhibits at least...
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...em to take me. I conclude that most of my basic knowledge of God and the story of Jesus was learnt then. Once school and moving collided, I lost touch with those religions, and focused on the “more important” things in life, studying. I do not think much of religion and beliefs. Aside from when my grandfather pasted away, while I was in the eighth grade; my mother began to believe in Catholicism, and soon became baptised. She then started to aggravate me to go with her to church on early Sunday mornings. However, she never forced me to follow her in becoming baptised, or to believe in the religion. I suppose that I have just grown up to think logically, and physically. If the existence of something cannot be properly proved by scientific evidence, then it is determined to be ignored or nonexistent, with respect to others who believe in their own personal viewpoints.
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