Prior research into the structure of memory have suggested that memory is comprised up from three separate stores each performing a specific and relatively inflexible function (in Passer, Smith, Holt, Bremner, Sutherland, & Vliek, 2009). That is the multi-store model, developed by Atkinson & Shiffrin (1968 in Passer et al., 2009) who claim a sensory memory store, short-term memory store (STM) and a long-term memory store (LTM) (in Passer et al., 2009). Although to some, the multi store model provided an adequate explanation of memory processes, it was regarded as being too simplistic since short-term and long- term memories were far more complicated than originally thought (in Craik & Lockhart, 1972). In essence, the multi-store model stresses the importance of rehearsal to long term memory. While rehearsal is crucial as a means of transferring information from the STM to the LTM, this is not necessarily always the case (in Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968 in Passer et al., 2009). To this, sceptics challenged the idea of information being transferred from the STM to the LTM by active rehearsal since subsequent research has indicated that information had the potential to be stored in the LTM without it being actively rehearsed (in Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968). In response to the difficulties and weaknesses presented in the multi-store model, an alternative model attempting to explain memory processes in a more precise manner was developed by Craik & Lockhart (1972 in Craik & Lockhart, 1972). Their theory of levels of processing proposes that different methods of encoding information into the memory will subsequently have an effect on recollection of information (in Craik & Lockhart, 1972). According to the levels of process...
... middle of paper ...
...rformance. For example, Craik & Lockhart (1972) found that individuals who processed information at a semantic level produced better recalls followed by acoustic processing and then visual processing being the least effective in terms of remembering. The results fundamentally imply that engaging in semantic processing tends to yield higher levels of memory performance compared to acoustic and visual processing thus reflecting the findings of Craik & Lockhart’s (1972) and that memory was enhanced more by depth of processing rather than how long information was rehearsed for as previously pointed out by the multi-store model. It also showed a greater amount of recall for deeply processed words than for shallowly processed words. In addition, the study also revealed that the effect appeared to be stronger for the ‘True’ responses that for the ‘False’ responses.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
Effect of Identity of the Confederate on Social Contagion of Memory: Does Misinformation From Significant Other Cause Higher Levels of Contagion?
- Memory’s reconstructive structure is known and has a consensus upon for a long time; and researchers try to identify different kinds of effects on memory such as neurological factors, cognitive factors and developmental factors and so on (Sutton, 2011). However, influence of social factors was not considered in research until recently. Echterhoff and Hirst (2009) reviewed both group and dyad studies in memory conformity and social contagion. They mention the first studies of social influence on memory started with researcher’s involvement in experiment.... [tags: health, memory, reconstructive structure]
1018 words (2.9 pages)
- Structure of Semantic Memory Semantic memory is our knowledge about the world and language and how it can be seen as our internal dictionary and encyclopedia together as one entity. Throughout its origins, semantic memory has been compared to episodic memory. In contrast, episodic memory refers to knowledge that is temporary or spatial, which is identified in the terms of personal experiences. Within these two systems there are many different models. I am going to discuss Eleanor Rosch's prototype approach feature comparison model, Anderson’s ACT-R model, the Collins and Loftus’s network model, and the exemplar model.... [tags: Research Analysis ]
1207 words (3.4 pages)
- ... These two categories of memory are produced based upon how the senses interact with the environment and if the brain deems the event important. A memory isn't just information stored in a specific portion of the brain; it's a process in which senses alter the neurons in the brain. In any given event the majority of humans use their senses to perceive information in an environment. Each sense that a person obtains is collected and sent to a portion of the brain called the hippocampus. These senses are created by electrical and chemical processes occurring within the cells of a human brain.... [tags: brain structure, perceptions, surroundings]
752 words (2.1 pages)
- The mammalian brain contains several different memory systems, which can be divided into declarative and non-declarative memory systems. Declarative memory can be further divided into episodic and semantic memory, and non-declarative memory can be divided into priming, associative learning, and procedural memory. I will first be discussing declarative memory, which is characterized by knowledge of facts and events. Much of our current knowledge of the structure and substrates of declarative memory derives from studies of amnesiac patients, from which we can derive two primary findings: declarative memory is separate from other forms of memory such as working and non-declarative memory, and f... [tags: Hippocampus, Memory, Episodic memory]
1877 words (5.4 pages)
- Throughout this course, I’ve learned about numerous different concepts and ideas involving the field of psychology, but the area I took the most interest in was the involvement of memory in psychology. During this course, I’ve learned that our memories are what identifies us during our youth and when we reach full adulthood and without those memories, we are lost as to who we are, and the history that defines us as well. I also learned something very interesting, those memories that leave an everlasting footprint in our minds can also assist us memorizing new content as well.... [tags: Memory, Method of loci, Mnemonic]
881 words (2.5 pages)
- Memory is the retention of information over time and it changes through our lifespan, from infancy through adulthood (Santrock 218). There are two types of memory, explicit and implicit. Explicit memory is memory without conscious recollection-memory of skills and routine. Procedures that are preformed automatically (Santrock 219). Explicit memory helps with things like waking up, getting out of bed and putting on your slippers so your feet don’t feel the cold of the floor. Walking out of your room on the second floor and being able to walk down the hallway and to the left to reach the stairs and making it safely down to the first floor without having to turn the lights on.... [tags: explicit memory, implicit memory]
1180 words (3.4 pages)
- In everyday life, we use our memory widely to carry out daily tasks. Memory is a topic that has become a primary focus in investigation for many years. According to Goldstein (2011), memory is a process involved in retaining, retrieving, and using information about stimuli, images, events, ideas, and skills after the original information is no longer present. Memory stores and retrieves information. The Atkinson-Shiffrin model is a theory of human memory that was proposed by Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffin in 1968.... [tags: sensory memory, auditory, visual coding]
983 words (2.8 pages)
- In computers, memory is referred to as a mechanism with the ability to store data and information. Storing data within a computer can be done in a variety of ways across multiple device platforms. Desired data information can be stored permanently or even temporarily. Unquestioned in computing, memory management is the fundamental act of properly distributing the appropriate and most fitting portions of memory among programs. This is all possible due to a unit known as real memory. Real memory deals with the actual hardware of a computer known as memory chips or commonly known as ram.... [tags: virtual memory, paging, segmentation]
2131 words (6.1 pages)
- The Use of Memory Memory is the vital tool in learning and thinking . We all use memory in our everyday lives. Think about the first time you ever tied your shoe laces or rode a bike; those are all forms of memory , long term or short. If you do not remember anything from the past , you would never learn; thus unable to process. Without memory you would simply be exposed to new and unfamiliar things . Life would be absent and bare of the richness of it happy or sorrow. Many scientists are still unsure of all that happens and what and how memory works.... [tags: Memory Brain Neurology Essays]
1073 words (3.1 pages)
- What is memory. Memory is involved in all aspects of our lives, is it a cognitive thinking process or a way of retaining information or is it a number of connected stores or even actual information retained. According to Reber (1985), it is possibly all of theses. Memory has not been defined as a single process or fact and several theories exist about its nature, character and structure. We have vast amounts of information stored in our memory systems which we are able to access quickly and effortlessly, this implies that knowledge stored must be highly organised to allow us to retrieve the appropriate information for a given situation.... [tags: Memory Essays]
1807 words (5.2 pages)