Sustainable access to water has two components:
a) Environmental sustainability
b) Functional sustainability.
Environmental sustainability refers to environmental protection through limiting extraction of water to a capacity below what is actually available. Functional sustainability refers to programme sustainability in terms of supply and management. (WHO, 2010)
Sustainability and Scaling-up Strategies
The main focus of the project should be on the sustainability of investments. An effort is to be made to create mechanisms to involve all sections of the communities in the selection of technical options which are affordable and environmentally and operationally sustainable. For this purpose, the source sustainability analysis should be made part of the participatory appraisal at the community level. The focus would be on developing low cost technical choices, with particular emphasis on recharge and conservation of ground and surface water rather than on construction of schemes.
The option of storing water may be construction of dams (surface storage) or the recharge of groundwater (sub-surface storage). Both the surface and the sub-surface water storage methods has its own advantages and dis-advantages to be considered while opting for the water stor...
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Non-integrated Conjunctive use applications
In this method, suitable optimization techniques are employed to solve the conjunctive use problem in a scientific and technically sound manner. The surface water and sub-surface water equations are solved numerically and the solution is passed on to the optimization model which gives the optimal solution for the decision variables consisting of surface water and sub-surface water allocations.
Integrated Conjunctive use applications:
In the integrated conjunctive use method, the numerical model for the solution of surface water and sub-surface
water equations are integrated with the optimization model leading to a single mathematical model. The conjunctive use model is formulated as a non-linear programming problem with surface water and sub-surface water allocations from one or more sources as decision variables
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