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Nanoporous Inorganic Solids

- Nanoporous Inorganic Solids A porous inorganic material is one which does not have pores and voids through and through. The voids show a translational repetition in 3-D space, while no regularity is necessary for a material to be termed “porous.” A typical and relatively simple porous system is one type of dispersion classically described in colloid science, namely foam or, better, solid foam (M. Jaroniec, 2002). In correlation with this, the most common way to think about a porous material is as a material with gas-solid interfaces as the most dominant characteristic....   [tags: pores, voids, porous materials, gas]

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Solids, Liquids, and Gases

- Solids, liquids, and gases are the three main, or fundamental phases of matter. Each one has a different density and a different level of stability. What determines the stability of each phase is the bond between it's atoms. The tighter the bond between it's atoms the more stable that phase of matter is. Solids are the most stable form of matter, followed by liquids, and then gases. Solids have a definite shape and do not take the shape of their container. Liquids do not have any definite shape and do take the shape of their container, the same is true with gases....   [tags: essays research papers]

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Polymorphisms of Crystalline Solids

- Polymorphisms of Crystalline Solids Polymorphism is the phenomenon where a compound can precipitate to form numerous crystal structures. Due to space and time limitations, we have decided to confine the scope of this paper to only include polymorphisms of crystalline solids and not include polymorphisms associated with DNA and genetic related topics. It is important in many areas of technology, that people are aware of the presence of polymorphisms and the properties of the different polymorphisms....   [tags: Chemistry Engineering Science Essays]

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Specific Heat of Solids

- Specific Heat of Solids I. Objective The objective of the study is to explain, measure and better understand the specific heat of copper and lead using the method of mixtures. II. Theory Heat is a form of energy it is either expressed in joules, calories, or kilo-calories According to the law formulated by the French chemists Pierre Louis Dulong and Alexis Thérèse Petit, the specific heat of solids which is characterized as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance to one degree Celsius specimens are inversely proportional to their atomic weights; that is, the specific heat multiplied by the atomic weight is approximately a constant quantity for all...   [tags: Papers]

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History of Colloidal Mills

- ... The material to be ground should be pre milled as finely as possible to prevent damage to the colloidal mill. Rotors and the stator may be smooth surfaced or rough surface. With the rotor and the stator there is a thin uniform film of material between them and it is subjected to the maximum amount of shear. Rough surfaced mill add intense eddy current, turbulence and the impaction of the particles to the shearing action. Principle Colloidal mill works on the principle of rotor-stator. The size reduction is affected due to shearing, when the material is passed between the narrow gap of milling surfaces of rotor and stator....   [tags: reducing solids, mixing technology]

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A Political Aspect Of The Macro Environment Regarding The Chocolate Market

- A political aspect of the macro-environment regarding the chocolate market in New Zealand is policies regarding the import of ingredients required for making chocolate. Cocoa beans are on the list of Prohibited or Restricted Imports, according to New Zealand’s Customs and Excise Act, 1996 (, 2015). This is a market factor that is important to Whittakers as a brand because as they produce all of their chocolate from imported cocoa beans in their New Zealand factory, they must comply with these restrictions and pay the appropriate tax on importing their cocoa beans....   [tags: Chocolate, Types of chocolate, Cocoa solids]

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Water Is A Good Solvent And Picks Up Impurities Easily

- Water is a good solvent and picks up impurities easily. Pure water -- tasteless, colourless, and odourless -- is often called the universal solvent. Dissolved solids" refer to any minerals, salts, metals, cations or anions dissolved in water. Total dissolved solids (TDS) comprise inorganic salts (principally calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, bicarbonates, chlorides, and sulphates) and some small amounts of organic matter that are dissolved in water. TDS in drinking-water originate from natural sources, sewage, urban run-off, industrial wastewater, and chemicals used in the water treatment process, and the nature of the piping or hardware used to convey the water, i.e., the plumbing....   [tags: Water, Water pollution, Total dissolved solids]

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Environment: Emissions Reduction

- Recommendations for Process Optimization Emissions Reduction Air pollution control has become a requirement set forth by the Environmental Protection Agency for every incineration facility. All pollution control equipment must be able to operate in such manner that it control and limit emissions and particulates {nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides (SOx) and carbon monoxide (CO)} (“Biosolids Technology Fact Sheet”, 2003). The EPA expects that air pollution control devices will reduce nationwide emissions from sewage sludge incinerators by four pounds per year of mercury, 450 tons per year of acid gases, 58 tons per year of particulate matter, and 1.7 tons per year of cadmium and lead (USEPA...   [tags: air pollution, reducing solids, landfill]

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Treatment of Waste Water from Domestic, Agriculture and Industry

- Treatment of Waste Water from Domestic/ Agriculture/ Industry Major contaminants of waste water from domestic: - Suspended solids - Dissolved solids - Settleable solids - Inorganic matters (eg. Minerals, heavy metals, as well as compounds like cadmium, calcium, copper, lead, magnesium, nickel, potassium, sodium, zinc) - Organic matters - Nutrients (eg. Nitrogen, phosphorus) - Oil and grease - Pathogens (eg. Bacteria, viruses, parasites) Major contaminants of waste water from agriculture: - Suspended solids - Dissolved solids - Settleable solids - Inorganic matters (eg....   [tags: water quality and health, contaminated water]

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States of Matter and How Matter Changes

- ... Another type of solid is an amorphous solid. These solids are formed when a liquid is suddenly cooled. An amorphous solid has no regular crystal structure but does have definite volume and shape. Amorphous solids are classified as viscous, or slowly flowing, liquids. These solids do not have sharp melting points. Also, amorphous solids have a wide range of melting points. Examples of amorphous solids are butter, plastic, rubber, and coal ("States of Matter"). Many outside forces may bend a solid out of its original shape....   [tags: solid, liquid, gas, plasma, particles]

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Sewage Water Quality Requirements Should Be Broken Down Into %

- Sewage can be broken down into 99.9% as water and 0.1 % as solids. 70% of the solids is organic substance (protein, carbohydrate, and fats) and another 30% is inorganic (grits, salts, and metals) and that is a typical municipal wastewater analysis. Based on this, chemical and bacteriological components of the treated/discharged effluent into receiving water body should be monitored to ensure the safety of the public health according to the effluent limitations (NPDES/AZPDES permits). Therefore, a TMDL will have to identify the amount of an exact or property of a pollutant weather from point, nonpoint, or natural sources that may be discharged to a water body and still ensure that the water b...   [tags: Sewage treatment, Water pollution, Wastewater]

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Sewage Should Be Broken Down Into 99.9 % Water

- Sewage can be broken down into 99.9% water and 0.1 % solids as the solids 70% of its organic substance (protein, carbohydrate, and fats) and another 30% is inorganic (grits, salts, and metals) and that is a typical municipal wastewater analyses. Based on this, chemical and bacteriological components of the treated/discharged effluent into receiving water body should be monitored to ensure the safety of the public health according to the effluent limitations (NPDES permits). Therefore, a TMDL will identify the amount of an exact or property of a pollutant weather from point, nonpoint, or natural sources that may be discharged to a water body and still ensure that the water body gains water qu...   [tags: Sewage treatment, Water pollution, Wastewater]

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Heating Policies At Different Switching Times

- This chapter includes the results obtained for the introduced three heating policies at different switching times. The air inlet and outlet temperatures and humidities as well as the solids temperature and moisture content evolution are displayed and explained in details hence; the optimum switching time for each scheme can be easily determined. The effect of the bed partitioning to 4, 10 and 50 sections is examined with respect to all parameters under concern. The above calculations are conducted both when constant rate drying conditions are assumed and when the intra-particle mass transfer diffusion resistance is taken into consideration....   [tags: Thermodynamics, Temperature, Water vapor]

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States of Matter

- Matter is defined as anything that occupies space and can be perceived by one or more senses; a physical body, a physical substance, or the universe as a whole. There are four distinct states of matter: solids, liquids, gases, and plasma. There are other states of matter such as Bose-Einstein condesates and neutron degenerate matter, but those states can only be found under extreme conditions. These phases can go from one to another when affected by certain things, which is known as phase changes....   [tags: solid, liquid, gas, plasma, space ]

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Environmental Issues of the Pulp and Paper Industry

- Environmental Issues: A little bit of a background Impact on water Pulp and paper is a heavy industry that involves the use of large amounts of water. It also results in an enormous amount of effluents that contains suspended solids in the untreated effluent. Table () shows the amount of untreated effluent with their corresponding suspended solids (kg/t) and BOD (kg/t). Suspended solids mainly consist of unprocessed wood parts, additives or coating material. Increased suspended solids in waterbeds causes elevated levels of BOD and hydrogen sulphide....   [tags: water, emissions, soil]

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The Systematic Procedure For Miniscale Recrystallization

- 4. List the steps in the systematic procedure for miniscale recrystallization, briefly explaining the purpose of each step. -Selection of solvent – The correct solvent must be selected to form a product of high purity and in good recovery. The solvent must fit some criteria. The desired compound should be soluble in the hot solvent but insoluble in the cold solvent. The impurities should be insoluble in all temperatures of the solvent or slightly soluble in a cold solvent. The boiling point of the solvent should be low enough to remove the crystals....   [tags: Temperature, Solubility, Solvent]

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The Impact of the El Segundo Hyperion Plant on the Surrounding Environment

- The Impact of the El Segundo Hyperion Plant on the Surrounding Environment The current El Segundo Hyperion plant is 144 acres of glass, concrete, and pipe. It is the end of the road for sewage from over 6,000 miles of sewer system maintained by the city of Los Angeles. (NORS S-1) The Hyperion plant is the environment’s best and last line of defense against the over 500 million gallons of wastewater produced in the area a day. The sheer volume of this waste most of which is being released into the Santa Monica Bay must be having some impact upon the environment....   [tags: Papers]

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The Properties of Seawater

- Water: it is the driving force behind our planet. It is what makes life possible on earth. Water is what runs so many other environmental and biological systems on our planet. But to know how water drives our planet, we first need to know what is the driving force behind water. Water has the ability to absorb and release vast amounts of heat. This helps to keep the earth’s surface thermostatic. This also helps regulate weather patterns. Heat currents travel from the equator to the poles and then back....   [tags: Chemistry]

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Recycling Processes for Wastewater

- 1.0 INTRODUCTION Recycling water in Canada is an important issue to understand and implement because of its wide ranging benefits in environmental matters. Canadian wastewater can be recycled by water treatments, each of these treatments results in varying water qualities, and these varying water qualities can be reused for industrial, unrestricted access or restricted access uses. Recycling wastewater is a crucial part of sustainable development; however, many communities in Canada are not active participants of this subject....   [tags: Canada, water treatment, environment]

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The Effect Of Myristic Acid From The Triglyceride

- The purpose of this experiment is to isolate myristic acid from the triglyceride, trimyristin, by using basic hydrolysis followed by acidification. First, tert-butyl methyl ether is utilized to extract the trimyristin and recrystallize from acetone to yield pure trimyristin. Sodium hydroxide, water, and ethanol are utilized to convert trimyristin to glycerol and sodium myristate. Finally, hydrogen chloride and water are applied to convert sodium myristate to myristic acid via hydrolysis. This experiment illustrates the paramount process of obtaining a pure organic yet medical compound from a natural source....   [tags: Nutmeg, Myristic acid, Ethanol, Sodium hydroxide]

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A Short Note On Chemical Monitoring And Management

- Chemical Monitoring and Management IRT Background Research Hunter water is the organisation that is responsible for the monitoring and management of the water supplied to the Hunter region. They have six catchment areas for the Lower Hunter and the catchment for Cessnock is the Chichester Dam which is located in the Barrington Tops National Park. Chichester Dam is in the wilderness area and is one of the most pristine water catchments in Australia. Cessnock has many rivers, dams and creeks; I took my sample of water from… Monitoring and management in the chemical industry is important to the environment and organisms living in it and from it....   [tags: Water pollution, Water, Oxygen]

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Anaerobic Hydrocarbons Biodegradation in Oil Sands Tailings

- INTRODUCTION Alberta is a major oil and natural gas producer in Canada. In Alberta, it is estimated that the oil sands reserves contain 1.7 trillion barrels of bitumen in place 1. There are four major companies that are currently mining the oil sands in Northern Alberta namely, Syncrude Canada Ltd., Albian Sands Energy Inc., Suncor Energy Inc., and Canadian Natural Resources Ltd. Syncrude Canada Ltd. (from now on will be referred as Syncrude), Suncor Energy Inc. and Canadian Natural Resources Ltd....   [tags: Scientific Research ]

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Wastewater Treatment Plants in the United States

- It is hard to imagine that the planet earth could possibly be experiencing an epic crisis of water deficiency. Earth is made up of 75 percent water, why, if water is in so abundant, is it such a precious commodity. Some countries have begun to ration water, while others act as if there is an endless supply. The numbers are very deceiving simply because the water that is in such short supply is fresh water, which is crucial for all aspects of life. "About 97.5% of all water is the saltwater of the oceans and seas....   [tags: biochemistry, environmental issues]

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Personal And Business Success : Goal Setting

- In order to achieve both personal and business success, goal setting is a very important tool. It is part of a strategic planning process. Throughout the planning process goals should be constantly written and referred to, they should also be checked continuously to ensure the business is on the right track. During the time in which we got to spend at the dairy farm in Gippsland run by Annette and her husband Jim, she was able to describe to us some of the main goals they have, both business and family....   [tags: Milk, Cattle, Dairy farming, Dairy]

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The Wastewater Treatment Of Wastewater Reclamation

- Reclaimed wastewater or reuse water is defined as an effluent that is derived from any part of the sewage facility that has been sufficiently and reliably treated to meet the water quality suitable for beneficial use without sludge handling or pollutants discharging. The wastewater can be classified in two main categories: domestic waste (residence, commercial, and institutional waste) and industrial waste which contains different types and strengths of contaminants from the domestic one, as these contaminants had been generated during the production process for any industrial facilities....   [tags: Water, Sewage treatment, Water pollution]

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The Lowry Landfill Superfund Site

- The Lowry Landfill Superfund Site is located in Arapahoe County, Colorado, approximately 2 miles east of Aurora. It consists of approximately 507 acres of waste disposal area and is operated by Waste Management of Colorado, Inc. The land surrounding the site consists of native prairie grass and a wetland located along a local creek. Sections around the site are zoned for agricultural use including cattle grazing and non-irrigated wheat farms. 1 The area is home to numerous endangered species including the bald eagle and peregrine falcon....   [tags: wastes, lowry site, groundwater, contamination]

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Water Quality Parameters That Are A Matter Of Concern During The Treatment Process

- 1. Water quality parameters that are a matter of concern during the treatment process may be grouped into physical, chemical, bacteriological and microscopic categories: - Physical quality of water is determined by a core of characteristics (such as temperature, viscosity, and surface tension) as well as by colloidal and dissolved substances in the water. Thus, electrical conductivity (EC), turbidity, color, taste and odor are determined by the presence of dissolved and colloidal substances in the water....   [tags: Water, Water pollution, Chlorine]

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Use Of Extraction And Crystallization Of A Centrifuge Tube

- In order to separate the mixture of fluorene, o-toluic acid, and 1, 4-dibromobenzene, the previously learned techniques of extraction and crystallization are needed to perform the experiment. First, 10.0 mL of diethyl ether would be added to the mixture in a centrifuge tube (1) and shaken until the mixture completely dissolved (2). Diethyl ether is the best solvent for dissolving the mixture, because though it is a polar molecule, its ethyl groups make it a nonpolar solvent. The compounds, fluorene and 1, 4-dibromobenzene, are also nonpolar; therefore, it would be easier for it to be dissolved in this organic solvent....   [tags: Solvent, Ethanol, Solubility, Sodium chloride]

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The Life of Johannes Kepler

- The Life of Johannes Kepler HIS LIFE Johannes Kepler was a German astronomer and mathematician ho discovered that planetary motion is elliptical. Early in his life, Kepler wanted to prove that the universe obeyed Platonistic mathematical relationships, such as the planetary orbits were circular and at distances from the sun proportional to the Platonic solids (see paragraph below). However, when his friend the astronomer Tycho Brahe died, he gave Kepler his immense collection of astronomical observations....   [tags: Papers]

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Materials And Methods Of Heat Treatment Of Whey

- Materials and Methods Heat treatment of whey WPC (10%, w/v), prepared by ultra-filtration, was obtained from Agropur Cooperative (Saint-Hubert, QC, Canada). WPC samples were thermally denatured at 100°Cfor 5min followed by rapid cooling in an ice bath. 2.2 Shearing Shearing was employed simultaneously with thermal denaturation using a Caframo stirrer BDC 6015 (Caframo Limited, Georgian Bluffs, Ontario, CA) equipped with a 4-bladed propeller rod with a diameter of 45 mm submerged in the whey solution....   [tags: Milk, Cheese, Scanning electron microscope, Whey]

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Temperature Affects On The Water Quality

- Temperature Temperature affects various processes in the water quality (ANZECC 1992). The rate of chemical reactions, for example, is activated when high water temperature occurs which causes evaporation of certain substances that may be present in the water. Also, as water temperature increases, the solubility rate of gases in water, such as oxygen (O2), decreases and respiration rates of aquatic organisms increases which results to greater oxygen consumption (Chapman and Kimstach 1992). A change in water temperature also causes greater destruction of aquatic life and problem of unwanted growth of water plants and wastewater fungus (Metcalf and Eddy 1991)....   [tags: Water, Oxygen, Water pollution, Aquatic ecology]

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All That Is Solid, Melts Into Air, By Karl Marx

- As designers we should be aware of the impact that our works, either intended or non-intended, have on our lives and society. They influence not only our quality of life, solve problems or provide other solutions, but at the same time are very much linked to our thinking, acting and behavior. Solid to Liquid society. ‘’All that is solid, melts into air’’, Karl Marx By nature capitalism is an endlessly growing and expanding system. To maintain a healthy economy, it is vital to continuously develop new markets and radically renew itself....   [tags: Mind, Perception, Sense, Concept]

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Destroying What is Crucial to Life - Water

- Water is crucial for all aspects of life, the defining feature of our planet. Ninety seven and a half per cent of all water is found in the oceans, of the remaining fresh water only one percent is accessible for extraction and use. Functioning and healthy aquatic ecosystems provide us with a dazzling array of benefits – food, medicines, recreational amenity, shoreline protection, processing our waste, and sequestering carbon. At the beginning of the 21st century, the world faces a water crisis, both of quantity and quality, caused by continuous population growth, industrialization, food production practices, increased living standards and poor water use strategies....   [tags: sewage, filter, wastel]

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The Quality Of Freshwater And Water Quality

- Water Quality According to Harrison (1999) the quality of freshwater is a concern as 65% of Europe’s population is dependent on groundwater. Harrison (1999) states that groundwater as a resource is overexploited in 60% of European industrial and urban centres and that the water is at risk from pollutants. According to Harrison (1999) the European Union standard for total pesticides (0.5 mg l -1) is exceeded in soil water in 60-75% of agricultural land. According to Bartram & Balance (1996) the most important variables in a water body are temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen, (DO) and total suspended solids....   [tags: Water, Water pollution, Eutrophication]

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Membranes And Its Effect On The Separation

- Membranes provide physical barriers that permit the passage of materials only up to a certain size, shape or character. There are four cross-flow, pressure‐driven membrane separation processes currently. Employed for liquid/liquid and liquid/solid separation: ultrafiltration (UF), reverse osmosis (RO), nanofiltration (NF), and microfiltration (MF). Membranes are manufactured in a variety of configurations including hollow fiber, spiral, and tubular shapes. Each configuration offers varying degrees of separation....   [tags: Water, Liquid, Chemical engineering, Desalination]

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The Texas A & M Wastewater Treatment

- On the date of September 15, 2016 a team of 13 environmental scientist enrolled within Bioenvironmental Science 411 at Texas A&M University visited a waste water plant under the University’s Division of Administration Utilities and Energy Services to investigate the regulated facilities “compliance with state and federal regulation” (Catalog Texas A&M). The Texas A&M wastewater treatment plant is located at 9865 Whitecreek Rd College Station, TX where the plant functions to provide a “cleaner environment through water and bio-solids recycling” (Wastewater Treatment Plant Tour)....   [tags: Sewage treatment, Water, Water pollution]

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World Map Of Pollution Of Vietnam

- Introduction Vietnam is experiencing a drastic change in its economy away from agriculture, forestry and fisheries towards industrialization. The resulting economic growth from this shift has brought significant benefits to the people of Vietnam. However, natural resources have been severely depleted and environmental quality has declined due to the rise in pollution levels from industrialization (ICEM, 2007). Figure 1 demonstrates that Vietnam is one of the highest ranked countries in the world in terms of pollution index....   [tags: Pollution, Water pollution, Manufacturing, Waste]

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Chlorinated Drinking Water is Necessary for Public Health

- With the aggregation of millions of people in large urban centers, there is an unprecedented amount of human waste to be treated. In this treatment, pathogenic microbes (bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and parasitic worms) must be removed or reduced to harmless levels. It is well known that in any community, at any time, there are always small numbers of people who are either manifestly ill, in some stage of illness but not demonstratively so, or healthy carriers of diseases. Together, these are indications of a community’s normal background of pathogenic microorganisms in which feces are in the sewage....   [tags: Drinking Water Quality]

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Tendon from Different Anatomical Positions

- Structure of a tendon is made up of collagenous tissues, a fibrous protein constituted as a large portion of the organic matrix of bone and cartilage (Nordin & Frankel, 2001). Also termed extracellular matrix (ECM) consisting of few cells, 20% of cellular material is occupied as total tissue volume, whilst 80% accounts for extracellular matrix (approximately 70% water and 30% solids) (Nordin & Frankel, 2001). Contained within these solids is a ground like substance with minor components of elastin....   [tags: Anatomy, Tissues]

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Bulgaria's Foreign Trade with Chocolate

- Introduction Characteristics of the good Chocolate is a sweet food preparation made of cacao seeds in various forms and flavors. It has large application in the food industry and can be consumed either as a final product or as a flavoring ingredient for a great variety of sweet foods. Its primary ingredient – cacao, is cultivated by many cultures in Mexico and Central America as well as in some countries in West Africa, such as Cote d’Ivoire. The production of chocolate takes place in several stages....   [tags: cacao, food industry, popular food]

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How A Harp Makes Sounds

- Introduction: Sound is actually a pressure wave; it is produced by a mechanical disturbance in the medium (in most cases- air) in which it is openly adjacent to. After the sound is first produced, it continues to disturb adjacent air particles and causes them to vibrate and hence the vibrations travel to the following adjacent air particles and so on like a chain reaction; however as the sound vibrations travel through the air particles, the vibrations and the loudness of the sound grows weaker and hence after a certain distance- the sound seizes to travel any further....   [tags: wave, vibration, frequency]

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Water Treatment Systems: Activated Sludge

- ... (Grady et al. 1999). It is well known that SRT affects sludge settling properties (Metcalf and Eddy, 2003) and the types of bacteria present in the activated sludge (Gerardi, 2006). Furthermore SRT is the key for controlling biomass production in a WWTP, elevating SRT to one of the most critical design and operational parameter in AS process. In this study and due to the nature of AS treatment and the slaughterhouses’ influent composition, a large amount of excess sludge was generated daily....   [tags: biodegradabilit, organic pollutant, engineering]

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The Indian Pharmaceutical Industry

- The Indian pharmaceutical industry has fast growing at the rate of 14 percent per year [Indian brand equality foundation, 2009] and its ranks is very high in the third world, in terms of technology, quality and range of medicines manufactured. A rapid expansion and sophistication of chemical and pharmaceutical industries has increased the amount and complexity of toxic waste effluents. The effective removal of substances included in pharmaceutical effluents is a challenging task due to the wide variety of Chemicals produced biological products ,medicinal chemicals , botanical products in drug manufacturing plants such as analgesic, antibiotics, antidepressants, antidiabetics, contracepes...   [tags: Environment, Toxic Waste Affluents]

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A Water Treatment Process

- ... There are two different phases in this process which are “rapid mixing to disperse coagulant chemicals by violent agitation into the water being treated and flocculation to agglomerate small particles into well-defined flock by gentle agitation for a much longer time” (Omran, 2011, p. 58). In this method, Omran (2011) believed that stable particles (unsticky) is converted to unstable (sticky) particles due to effectiveness of coagulant. Due to this method, Olumuyiwa, Fred and George (2012) reviewed that small size particles is transformed into bigger ones with higher rate of velocity and sedimentation and the sludge formed can then be disposed off....   [tags: the importance of freshwater]

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Biography of Johannes Kepler

- Johannes Kepler was born on December 27, 1571 to Heinrich and Katharina in Württemberg, Germany. Heinrich was the owner of the local tavern, and utilized young Johannes as a pot-boy. In the days of his youth, Kepler was often quite ill for one reason or another, leading him to be quite frail and somewhat saddened. After witnessing the Great Comet of 1577, at age 6, Kepler acquired a fondness for astronomy; seeing the lunar eclipse in 1580 also contributed to this great interest. In addition to his strong interest in all things astronomical, young Johannes was rather good at math....   [tags: ill, professor, mathematics, astronomy, fields]

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Covalent and Ionic Compounds

- Compounds are pure substances that contain atoms of two or more elements chemically combined in fixed ratios. In this lab, we observed two types of compounds, Ionic compounds and Covalent compounds. Ionic compounds are chemical compounds consisting of two or more ions that are held adjacent to each other by electrical attraction. “One of the ions, called an “anion,” has a negative charge, and the other is called a “cation,” and has a positive charge. “Cations” are usually metallic atoms and “anions” are either atoms of nonmetals or polyatomic ions....   [tags: chamical analysis]

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How New York City's Sewage and Garbage is Treated

- How New York City's Sewage and Garbage is Treated You ever wonder where the stuff you flush down the toilet goes. Or where the water goes after you brush your teeth. Or what's under those manholes that has sewage written on it. What happens when you throw wasted in the garbage. You probably don't but all of the content that is discarded throughout the day gets sent to a sewage plant through the pluming system that is connected to your house. There are sewage plants located throughout New York City....   [tags: Free Essays]

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Waste Water Management in the Philippines

- I. INTRODUCTION This report aims to discuss and to enrich the reader’s knowledge on the proper desludging and disposal of waste accumulated from septic tanks. The information gathered here is vital as it provides a culture of awareness to everyone on how wastewater is disposed of. Wastewater comes from everywhere; from our residences to our workplaces, even public places. Filipinos as we are, have been known to be hygienic yet we know little of what happens when our used water is flushed to the drain until it’s carried off to treatment plants....   [tags: essays research papers]

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Acid-Base Chemistry Lab

- The purpose of this lab was to determine the pH and total acidity of grape juice and wine. A second purpose was to experimentally determine the pKa of a monoprotic weak acid, polyprotic weak acid, as well as, a free amino acid, alanine. Acids and bases were defined by Bronsted-Lowry in 1923, in which acids were described as substances capable of donating a proton and bases are substances capable of accepting a proton (Thompson and Dinh 2009). In addition to defining acids and bases, Bronsted-Lowry further classified acids and bases as being either strong or weak....   [tags: Scientific Research ]

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Hygroscopicity in Pharmaceutics

- Hygroscopicity in Pharmaceutics During formulation of new and existent drugs in pharmaceutics, hygroscopicity is one of the important physical parameters that are studied so as to enhance the efficacy, stability and handling of the drug. Hygroscopicity has always been an important aspect in pharmaceutics as the bulk of the drugs either in tablet or solution form is normally hygroscopic. Up to now, there remains no universally recognized definition of hygroscopicity because it is driven by both thermodynamic and kinetic forces....   [tags: Pharmaceuticals]

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batch process of wine making

- Introduction The homemade production of wine is a fun and challenging hobby that many people can enjoy. In this paper the reader will be taken through several different steps and processes that must be accomplished for your wine to be of satisfactory flavor and clarity. Crushing and stemming This first step may be performed by hand or by machine. For handling a ton or more of grapes, use a mechanical crusher-stemmer. Using a small crusher-stemmer, two persons can crush and stem a ton of grapes in about one hour....   [tags: essays research papers]

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Ionic and Covalent Compounds

- Ionic and Covalent Compounds Pre-Lab 1. List the properties of ionic compounds. - Solids at room temperature. - Soluble in water. - Conduct electricity (while in solution). - Very high melting and boiling points. 2. List the properties of covalent compounds. - Solids, liquids, or gases at room temperature. - May or may not be soluble in water. - Most do not conduct electricity (except for acids) - Low melting and boiling points. 3. Give the name and formula for: a) 3 ionic compounds NaCl—Sodium Chloride FeCl3—Iron (III) Chloride MgO—Magnesium Oxide b) 3 covalent compounds NO—Nitrogen Monoxide CBr4—Carbon Tetrabromide N2O5—Dinitrogen Pentoxide Laborato...   [tags: Papers]

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Preparation A Acid Base Extraction Technique For Separate Organic Compounds Successfully By Separatory Funnel Preforming On Two Liquids

- The Objective The purpose of this experiment was to learn and preform an acid-base extraction technique to separate organic compounds successfully and obtaining amounts of each component in the mixture. In this experiment, the separation will be done by separatory funnel preforming on two liquids that are immiscible from two layers when added together. The individual components of Phensuprin (Acetylsalicylic acid, Acetanilide, and Sucrose as a filler) was separated based upon their solubility and reactivity, and the amount of each component in the mixture was obtained....   [tags: Solvent, Sodium bicarbonate, Hydrochloric acid]

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The Effects of Erosion and Loss of Marsh Land in the Southern United States

- Motivation for Research and Objectives Louisiana contains approximately 40% of the coastal wetlands of the lower forty-eight states. Louisiana has lost up to forty square miles of marsh per year for several decades (accounting for 80% of the nation’s annual coastal wetland loss) ( From a hydrologic standpoint, the wetlands replenish aquifers, hold excess floodwaters from intense rainfalls, and provide storm surge protection. The Nation also benefits from Louisiana’s coastal lands. Louisiana is responsible for a major part of our nation’s oil and gas production, shipping commerce, fisheries industry, fur harvesting, and oyster production, accounting for over 55,000 jobs and billi...   [tags: louisiana, soils, ]

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Long Pre Operative Fasting : An Standard Of Care For Patients Undergoing Elective Procedures

- Nil per os (NPO-nothing by mouth) after midnight has long been the standard of care for patients undergoing elective procedures. The American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) first recommended liberalization of NPO after midnight in 1999 and updated to the current guidelines (8 hours prior solid food, 6 hours prior a light meal of toast and clear liquids and 2 hours prior for clear liquids) in 2011. Liberal preoperative fasting has been implemented in most countries, however current studies reveal healthy adults are fasting from solid food on average of 14.5 hours, liquids 13 hours and clear liquids 12.5 hours before scheduled elective procedures (Kulshrestha, Mathews, Kapadia, & Sanwatsar...   [tags: Anesthesia, Surgery, Vomiting, Patient]

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Optimization of Extrusion Cooking Process for Rice-Fish Extrudates with an Underutilized Fish Meal

- MATERIALS AND METHODS Preparation of fish Sea bass (underutilized fish) procured from the Ukkadam fish market were used in this study. It was thoroughly washed with potable water after removing scales, viscera and bones. The fish fillet was ground in a pulverizer and was then mixed with rice flour. Preparation of rice-fish flour The ingredients viz., fish paste, rice flour, water and salt were used for the preparation. The fish paste, rice flour and salt were mixed properly, adjusted to a desired moisture content by adding water....   [tags: preparation, fish, extrusion, properties]

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Proper Monitoring Records For Toxic Pollutants And The Name Of The Receiving Waters

- 5. PERMIT The NPDES permit No. 0052469 became effective on April 30, 2013 and expired on April 29, 2018. The name of the outfalls and the name of the receiving waters were as described in the permit. The Cherokee WWTP is authorized to discharge through Outfall 001 into the Oconaluftee River. 6. RECORDS AND REPORTS Self-monitoring records consisted of the following: • discharge monitoring reports (DMRs) • monthly operating reports (MORs) • daily operational sheets • calibration records • analytical data reports The self-monitoring records were kept for a minimum of three years....   [tags: Sewage treatment, Water pollution]

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Wastewater Treatment And Its Effects On The Environment And Public Health

- Wastewater, also known as sewage, is a mixture of domestic and industrial wastes. It is 99.97 percent water, and the remainder contains organic matter such as human waste and food scraps, fats, oil and grease, debris, household chemicals, and industrial waste that can pose a threat to the environment and public health (1). As a result, effective treatment of wastewater is crucial to minimize the environmental impacts of wastewater. Wastewater treatment is carried out in several stages, which resulted in the separation of wastewater into sludge and a dissolved fraction of water, organic materials, bacteria and salts (2)....   [tags: Water, Sewage treatment, Water pollution, Oxygen]

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The Synthesis Of Amylase From Acetic Anhydride And Aniline

- Falak Mdahi Chem 203.2 The Synthesis of Acetanilide from Acetic Anhydride and Aniline Introduction Recrystallization is a technique used to purify solids that contains small amounts of impurities. It is used to isolate pure solids from a supersaturated solution leaving the impurities in the solvent (1). The solid containing the impurities is placed in a hot solvent and upon cooling the compound precipitates to its purified form while the impurities are left behind in the solvent (1). There are six steps when it comes to undergoing a recrystallization of a solid....   [tags: Solvent, Oxygen, Acetic acid, Solubility]

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Energy Usage And Cost Of The Kent Bioenergy Corporation

- Energy usage and cost is a concern that is been and continues to be addressed globally. Many issues arise from the use of energy: greenhouse gas emissions, acid rain, climate change, dependency on depleting supplies of fossil fuels, which is especially important in areas of the world where political instability sustains. (GENI) Researchers and companies alike have sought out alternate methods of energy, one such being biofuels. Biofuels has been a progressive research that has been conducted for the sole purpose of being proven a viable alternative to many of the fuels consumers and corporate conglomerates use today....   [tags: Greenhouse gas, Carbon dioxide, Methane]

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Ways of Transmitting Heat: Conduction, Convection and Radiation

- Conduction, convection and radiation are the three methods through which heat can be transferred from one place to another. The ( first method is the conduction through which heat can be transferred from one object to another object. This process is defined as the heat is transmitted from one to another by the interaction of the atoms and the molecules. The atoms and the molecules of the body are physically attached to each other and one part of the body is at higher temperature to the other part or the body, the heat begins to transfer....   [tags: physics, thermodynamics]

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Breastfeeding Is The Best Way Of Feeding Babies

- Why you should breastfeed exclusively for six month In the past mothers depend greatly on breastmilk as the best way of feeding babies. With the advancement in technology and daily hassles, mothers turn to either breastfeed for a couple of months, then formula feed their babies. Every mother has the right to decide whether to breastfeed or bottle feed, this personal right will be supported no matter the decision. However, exclusive breastfeeding is the best thing a mother can give to her baby for the first six months of the baby’s life....   [tags: Breastfeeding, Breast milk, Baby bottle]

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Key Mathematical Ideas and Skills: Shape Recognition

- Summary Children observe and interact with three-dimensional objects through daily activities in the environment such as building blocks, book reading, balls or puzzles. Learning three-dimensional shapes is one of geometry outcomes in Victorian Essential Learning Standards. In my lesson plan, I concentrate on recognizing and naming familiar three-dimensional shapes by providing students the Three-dimensional Shape Hunt activity. This report will reflect the lesson plan on four points: • Key mathematical ideas and skills • Link to relevant curriculum documents and understanding of the learning sequence • Teaching approaches, developing children’s understanding, appropriate models and material...   [tags: Elementary Education, math, teaching]

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A Dogs Life in Up and Downs

- A Dogs Life in Up and Downs Dog care seems to be one of societies greatest undermined problems as streets begin to become littered with stray dogs. On Average there are 7.6 million animals put into shelters nationwide. A whopping 3.9 million relates specifically to dogs, and to make matters even more precarious 2.7 million are put down. And only 1.3 million are adopted, is it the dog’s fault. Or are humans to blame for not properly caring for them. Dogs have an instinct to reproduce and a fertile dog will reproduce on average once a year and this deals with 4-6 puppies on average....   [tags: dog care, having puppy, shelters, abuse]

Term Papers
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Case Study of Waste Water Treatment Plants

- Background: Waste water treatment plants are essential to communities of all sizes and must work efficiently. Waste water treatment plant primary priority and responsibility is the treatment of incoming sewage water by the removal of biological and chemical wastes so it can be treated and recycled for future use. There are many government agencies and standards set forth to govern and observe the successful treatment of sewage such as: the Department of Environmental Quality, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System and the Clean Water Act of 1972....   [tags: Sewage Water, Biological, Chemical Waste]

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Comparing the Concentrations of Saturated Solutions Experiment

- ... Our final concentration of the solution was 48 g/100cc of water. By looking at the class data, we can see that solubility is indeed a characteristic property. Six of the ten sodium chloride groups found the solubility of sodium chloride to be statistically 36g/100cc of water, with a +3g/100cc margin of error. Three of the four groups outside this margin of error had solubilities in the forties, 42, 48, 49g/100cc. These three groups made an experimental error that altered their results and can be excluded from our analysis of data....   [tags: laboratory report]

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A Brief Biography of Euclid of Alexandria

- While he was born thousands of years ago, Euclid has made a mark in mathematics that has stood the test of time and continues to shape modern sciences. He discovered classic geometry and wrote many book and papers on mathematics that proved useful to the great thinkers of the time. Having drafted a lot of his finding in his book The Elements, he has made a framework for mathematicians and is, even 23 centuries later, revered as valued information. His years of studying have made him a loved and respected individual....   [tags: ancient Greek mathematicians]

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Freshwater Shortage Brings Need for Wastewater Treatment

- ... Also in this process, there is no special method employed during the treatment cycle to remove heavy metals from wastewater. 1.2 Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Heavy metal Contamination 1.2.1 Nitrogen and Phosphorus Contamination (a) Sources Conventional wastewater treatment can remove phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations in wastewater to a limited extent [5]. Discharge of this untreated water leads to high release of nitrates and phosphates into the environment. Agricultural activities are significant contributors for release of nitrates and phosphates to the groundwater in most parts of the United States....   [tags: pollution, environment, technology]

Term Papers
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Indsutry Wastewater Processes in Trinidad and Tobago

- In Trinidad and Tobago there are many companies that produce wastewater due to many different reasons. Some such companies that are known to produce wastewater are Carib Brewery Ltd, Coca Cola, Nestle and BP also known as British Petroleum. Some companies have different methods which they use to treat their wastewater to be able to reuse it or release it back into streams as an acceptable standard of quality. After doing my research it has to be noted that not all companies have a standard method or process to deal with their wastewater which they produce....   [tags: Environment, Pollution]

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Regulations For The Design Of Porous Asphalt

- The U.S. DOT has put out a specific set of regulations for the design of porous asphalt. “Porous Asphalt Mixture Properties and Characteristics Porous asphalt mixtures are designed using the Super-pave (50 gyrations) or Marshall (35 blows per side) methods with requirements for higher air voids and low drain down to assure permeability and performance. To reduce drain down and provide resistance to scuffing, mixes are typically designed with polymer-modified binders. Fibers are often added to the mix to reduce drain down....   [tags: Water, Water pollution, Stormwater]

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1289 words | (3.7 pages) | Preview

Looking Up The Streets Of Los Angeles

- Prints, Prints and more Prints It does not matter if you are a man, woman, child or a senior, prints are back for everyone. Walking down the streets of Los Angeles it is very common to see flowers in everyone’s shirt. This is a trend that is bringing back colors and life into our daily lifestyle, since everywhere we see there are colorful designs that makes people smile. Prints go from very realistic red roses to very abstract art where there are only brush strokes and dripped paint, which makes clothing have such a wide variety that is hard to choose....   [tags: Clothing, Textile, Dyes, Silk]

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The Effect Of Gas Laws On Earth

- On earth, substances tend to exist in one of three phases; either a solid, liquid, or gas. While solids and liquids have defining factors such as volume, and for solids only, a shape, gases exhibit neither of these. Gases naturally take the shape of and expand into the volume of the container, and change when placed in different surroundings. As gases are constantly moving around and colliding with the walls, they exert a force, or pressure, on the walls of its container. Pressure is one of the characteristic behaviors that gases exhibit, but due to their nature, various factor effect the pressures that a gas can exert....   [tags: Pressure, Gas, Ideal gas, Ideal gas law]

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How Children Learn the Mathematics Concepts

- Summary Children observe and interact with two-dimensional and three-dimensional objects through daily activities in the environment such as building blocks, books, balls or puzzles. Learning geometry is one of outcomes in Victorian Essential Learning Standards. Geometry offers an opportunity for students to engage in mathematical thinking that allows them to make conjectures. This report will reflect the lesson plan on four points: • Key mathematical ideas and skills. • Link to relevant curriculum documents and understanding of the learning sequence....   [tags: Math]

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The Most Effective Waste Treatment Options

- What are the most effective waste treatment options prior to discharge to receiving bodies of water or the local wastewater treatment facility. Paint manufacturers, to include Sherwin-Williams, produce a variety of different paint types and colors, including both organic solvent-borne and water-borne paints. Each type and color of paint is manufactured in a separate batch, and all manufacturing equipment is generally cleaned between batches to prevent contamination (figure 1-1). This equipment cleaning process is the largest source of waste from paint manufacturing and can account for up to 80% of a paint manufacturer’s waste stream (WMRC, 1992)....   [tags: waste minimization, wastewater treatment]

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Wastewater Treatment: Primary and Secondary Treatment

- CHAPTER-3 3.1 Introduction As the given situation describes, eutrophication is a result of the presence of nitrogen and phosphorus in river since no protection methods are carried out to end the release of waste into the water bodies. Such rivers are commonly known as sensitive rivers. These nutrients excite the production of algae providing food for their growth under the accurate circumstances thus causing eutrophication. Eutrophication can harm the ecosystem causing unwanted alteration in aquatic population, extreme reduction of oxygen, health issues to human-beings and animals, expensive water treatment costs and, interfering with recreational signifi...   [tags: microorganisms, organic waste]

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Pollution of Water Sources in Malaysia

- INTRODUCTION In Malaysia, rivers have been used as a source of water and various development needs. There is no denying that water is a very significant natural resources. Irrigation, industrial and domestic needs consume water while other development such as recreation, hydroelectric power generation, and transportation rely on the quality and availability of water (Talib, Ariffin, & Baharom, n.d.). However it seems that humans have not realized how significant it is. Deprivation of their quality and ability to perform important functions bring major consequences results in long-term economic losses and affecting the population’s quality of life as a whole....   [tags: effects on human health and the environment]

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A Study Of The Johnson County

- The study of the Johnson County should be considered solely for illustrative purpose only. However the results are indicative of the kinds of conclusions to be generated from a detailed modeled based on a more specific and comprehensive data inputs from users. Over the entire planning period of 30 days, shale gas field (10 wells completed) located in Johnson County, Texas produced approximately 9.2 million gallons (34826 m3) of HF wastewater. Figure 2 shows the optimized aggregate HF water management plan for the field development, where the x-axis denotes the progression of the well completion schedule and y-axis shows the total volume of HF wastewater produced by completed wells on each da...   [tags: Water, Water supply, Water pollution, Hydrology]

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1146 words | (3.3 pages) | Preview

Sound Light And Ocean Biochemical Processes

- Sound Light and Ocean Biochemical Processes Propagation of sound and the transmission of light within water Sound All sounds come from vibrations causing sound waves. Sound waves will travel better through solids and liquids than they will gas. “Sound or acoustic energy involves the actual vibration of the actual material through which it passes and thus, in general, propagates best through solids and liquids, less well in gasses and not at all in a vacuum” (Wright et al., 1995, p. 70) Objects in water vibrate and cause sound-pressure waves that compress and decompress water molecules as the waves travels through the water....   [tags: Photosynthesis, Adenosine triphosphate, Redox]

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Filtration Systems: Theory and Technology

- Theory and Technical Background Uni-Minn Development Corporation was asked to design a filtration system capable of filtering 500 gallons per hour of a slurry solution containing four percent Celite-500 (17.3 μm particle diameter) by mass. The scaled up filtration system is to be of rotary drum type, and capable of continuous operation. Two days of bench-scale testing were performed in the Uni-Minn Development Corporation’s Unit Operations Laboratory to determine the necessary parameters for scale up....   [tags: Fluid Dynamics]

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The Process of Water Treatment

- Malaysian consumed an average of 230 liters of water per person per day. Furthermore, Malaysian’s water consumption per capita per day is alarmingly high and increasingly about 7.6 liters per year (Kerri, 2008). Water plays an important role for humans as natural resource needed for both drinking and irrigation purposed. The increases of population as well as the increase in economic and industrial activities have led to high demand for water. In order to produce potable water, water treatment process must be conducted properly....   [tags: Water Consumption, Malaysia, Drinking Water]

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1106 words | (3.2 pages) | Preview

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