As per hess law the sum of enthalpy changes round a Born-Haber cycle is zero. With this we can easily calculate the lattice energy of an ionic compound. Lattice energy is used to calculate the enthalpy of solution from the expression: ∆Hsol = ∆latice H+ ∆hyd H Enthalpy of solution is equal to sum of lattice energy (which is required) and hydration energy of constituent ions (which is released). Enthalpy of solution is heat change when one mole of salt is dissolved in excess of solvent so that all heat change takes place in one time. CuSO4(s) + aq(excess of water) → CuSO4(aq) And heat of hydration is amount of heat change when one mole of anhydrous compound is converted to hydrated form.
A titration is used to determine the amount of acid in a given solution. This is done by titrating a measured volume of acid (in this instance, acetic acid (CH3COOH)) with a solution of a strong base (usually sodium hydroxide (NaOH)), of a known concentration. The NaOH is added in small aliquots until the acid has been neutralised, and this can be determined with an indicator dye, such as phenolphthalein, or a pH meter (Nelson & Cox, 2008 pg58). In this practical, a pH meter was used and this allows for the acidity or alkalinity of a solution to be measured, and this was more accurate than using an indicator dye. The use of the pH meter in titration is generally preferred more over the visual indicator because the equivalence point can be measured
Solubility of Potassium Chlorate Solubility is the maximum amount of solid that will dissolve in 100g of solvent. The solubility of a substance depends on the type of ionic particles in it. So the solubility of each substance is different. The formula of solubility is: SOLUBILITY(g/100g)= (SOLUTE / SOLVENT) * 100 I did an experiment to prove this and find the solubility of potassium chlorate, an ionic solid. Apparatus: 2g potassium chlorates, some distilled water, a stand, a clamp, two beakers, a thermometer, a test tube, and a measuring cylinder.
To make each of the different strengths of the acid, water is added to a solution of 2M hydrochloric acid. Therefore in the 0.2 value, there will be a lot of water, and so it is not expected that much gas will be produced. My predicted graph shows what I expect. On the x-axis, as the molarity increases, the gas produced on the y-axis does likewise. However there will be a point reached where the maximum limit of gas has been prod... ... middle of paper ... ...a clear trend that as the molarity of the acid increases, the volume of carbon dioxide will also do the same.
Titration is preferred to be in nitric acid solution, HNO3. Excess of AgNO3 added to cause precipitation of anions is measured. Next, excess Ag+ is determined by back titration against standard potassium thiocynate solution. Example of equation are as follows; Ag+(aq) + Cl–(aq) → AgCl(s) + excess Ag+ excess Ag+(aq) + SCN–(aq) → AgSCN(s) Fe3+(aq) + SCN–(aq) →
OBJECTIVE: To determine the equilibrium constant for the following reaction: Fe3+(aq) + SCN-(aq) -----> Fe(SCN)2+(aq) BACKGROUND: In this experiment, the equilibrium constant, K, for the above reaction is given by the expression: K = [FeSCN 2+] [Fe 3+][SCN 1-] where the concentrations of the substances are those at equilibrium. The equilibrium concentrations of these substances will be determined and used to determine K. Since the reactants are essentially colorless, whereas the complex ion product is deeply colored, a spectrophotometer will be used to determine the maximum absorbance due to the FeSCN2+at its four different concentrations. Beer's Law states that the absorbance of a colored solution is directly proportional to the concentration of the absorbing species. In this experiment, the FeSCN2+ is the absorbing species. The formula for Beer's Law is A = kc where A is the absorbance of the solution, k is the Beer's Law constant and c represents the concentration of the absorbing species.
Rate of Reaction Experiment - Sodium Thiosulphate and Hydrochloric Acid To investigate the effect, of changing the concentration of a reactant, in a chemical reaction on it rate. The equation used for the experiment was: Sodium + Hydrochloric Sulphur + Sulphur + Sodium + water Thiosulphate acid dioxide chloride Na2S2O3 + 2HCl(aq) S(s) + SO(g) + NaCL(aq) + H2O The Collision Theory can explain reaction rates perfectly. A chemical reaction can only occur between particle when they hit or collide at a minimal amount of energy need for them to react this is called the activation energy. The rates of a reaction depends on how hard and often the reacting particles collide. Basically, particles have to collide in order to react 1) They must also collide hard enough to give a reaction.
The diagram below depicts the reaction of HCl with NH3. In the reaction, HCl ... ... middle of paper ... ...ations served as background information for the calculations and for the general procedure of the lab. The solid acid, when added to water ionized to form charged particles causing the solution to have a certain pH that could be figured out from a titration curve graph. The acid used in this lab, KHP, ionized in water and formed Hydronium ions in the water. These ionized particles were what gave the acid a certain pH and those particles were what was being neutralized in the reaction.
However in my investigation, I am investigating temperature and the particle size of the solute. Prediction From using my scientific knowledge and understanding, if the particle size of the solute is smaller, the particles can easily diffuse with the solvent's particles and fill in the spaces between them. In addition, the surface area is also increased if the particle size of the solute is smaller, giving a greater area for the particles of the solvent to collide with, so the solute can dissolve quickly. If the temperature is high, more kinetic energy is given to the particles, therefore the particles would move faster, mix in with the particles of the solvent, and will easily dissolve in it. Variables inc.
Finding the Exact Concentration of Sulphuric Acid in a Solution Through a Titration Aim: To find the exact concentration of sulphuric acid in a solution through a titration. The titration is between sulphuric acid and sodium carbonate has to be in liquid for in order to carry out the experiment so it is dissolved into distilled water to a concentration of 0.1 mol dm³ Introduction- ------------- During the extraction of a metal from its ore, sulphuric dioxide is often produced. This is converted to sulphuric acid and is sold as a useful by-product. I am going to be given a sample of sulphuric acid, which is thought to have a concentration between 0.05 and 0.15-mol dm³. The purpose of this experiment is to find the accurate concentration of the sulphuric acid.