Prior to a new cancer drug being allowed to be dispensed, pharmaceutical companies conduct extensive pre-clinical studies both in vitro and and in vivo (animal experiments) to study the toxicity, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics. There is a growing concern over the limitations of animal research and the inability to provide reliable predictions for human clinical trials (Roberts et al., 2007) as although animal studies are said to be an overestimate by around 30% of the success of treatment, negative results are often left unpublished (Sena et al., 2010).
Colon cancer is a disease in which malignant cells form in tissues where genetic, dietary and environmental factors contribute to the pathogenesis, aetiology and preventative intervention (Potter, 1996). Traditionally animal models like adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) gene mutant mice or azoxymethane (AOM)-induced rat colon cancer, which eventually show adenomas and carcinomas in the small intestine rather than in the colon (Moser et al., 1990, Fodde et al., 1994), have been used as a preclinical study to evaluate the toxic...
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...possible with the work involved with animal models where medicines have been produced with fewer side effects as well as vaccine candidates that may one day prevent HIV infection. Diabetes affects approximately 6.3% of the US population which is the leading cause of death and disability. Diabetes is also known to affect animals having been diagnosed in practically almost every breed of cat and dog. Treatments and medicines have been developed in animal models such as the fast and long acting insulin and islet transplantation for type 1 diabetes which without would cause premature deaths around the globe.
To conclude, animal research for the use of scientific and medical advancement will almost certainly carry on with slow progression for the reduction, replacement and refinement until the alternatives to animal experimentation outweigh the use of animals themselves.
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