The Role Of Perceived Organizational Support And Supportive Human Resource Practices On Hourly Retail Employee Satisfaction

The Role Of Perceived Organizational Support And Supportive Human Resource Practices On Hourly Retail Employee Satisfaction

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INTRODUCTION
Employees develop a general perception concerning the extent to which the organization values their contributions and cares about their well-being. Employees would view the treatment received from their organization as an indication that it favors or disfavors them (Stinglhamber, Vandenberghe). The role of Perceived Organizational Support and Supportive Human Resource Practices of hourly (non-exempt) retail HR employees may be related to low employee satisfaction and loyalty. The inferences of this study for HR practice leaders and their organizations are significant because a lack of perceived organizational support, may lead to poor employee satisfaction and loyalty, thereby adding costly affects of negative employee morale and turnover.
Employee turnover represents a practical problem to an organization in terms of loss of talent and additional recruitment and training cost. Only a few studies have explored the effects on intention to leave (i.e. Daily & Kirk 1992) . Therefore, the underlying process through with organizational perception leads to employee turnover remain largely unknown. I am not going to consider gender, age or race in this study. I am not going to consider individual employee titles. I am not going to study samples of over 60 people. I am not going to divide HR non-exempt employees by individual HR departments.
Definition of terms
1. Perceived organizational support (POS)-employee perceptions in relation to organization.
2. Employee loyalty- trust and intent to maintain employment with the employer/organization
3. Valence- the emotional orientations people hold with respect to outcomes (rewards)
4. Expectancy- Employees have different levels of expectations and levels of confidence about what they are capable of doing.
5. Instrumentality-A person’s belief that a particular outcome is contingent on accomplishing a specific level of performance.

LITERATURE REVIEW

With the general knowledge of the importance of employees to an organization, it is understandable how employee perception cannot be overlooked. The role of hourly non-exempt HR employees is vital to the HR department’s success. Therefore sustaining a positive POS is essential for the HR Organization. Victor Vroom’s Expectancy Theory deals with motivation and management. Vroom’s Expectancy Theory is based upon Valence, Expectancy and Instrumentality. (Kreitner) According to Vroom, management must discover employees’ values, training needs, supervision, and ensure promises of rewards are kept. These things will all lead to employee satisfaction and loyalty. In evaluating the Social Exchange Theory, which states that relationships have give and take, although the balance of this exchange is not always equal.

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The Social Exchange theory explains how we feel about a relationship with another person as depending on our perceptions of: a)The balance between what we put into the relationship and what we get out of it. b)The kind of relationship we deserve. c) The chances of having a better relationship with someone else.
The Role of Perceived Organizational Support and Supportive Human Resource Practices should create feelings of loyalty to support organizational goals. HR Practices are important for the development of a POS. An HR Organization that listens, rewards and promotes its employees recognizes the employee’s contributions and imply continuous encouragement and support for the organization. A company with strong customer satisfaction and loyalty can survive and prosper even when faced with a tough economy or an unforeseen disaster. The salient example: Southwest Airlines, which consistently ranks first among airlines in customer satisfaction. Following the September 11 terrorist attacks, which pushed many airline companies to the brink of demise, Southwest actually managed to post a profit in the fourth quarter of 2001, and was confident enough about the future to add new routes. (Kiger)

A 1999 survey released by the Hudson Institute of Indianapolis “Commitment in the Workplace Study” proves that the average worker is frustrated when their employer doesn't allow them to pursue their talents, understand where the organization is going and let them know that they are appreciated.
In this paper I make the following hypothesis:
H1 - The role of Perceived Organizational Support and Supportive Human Resource Practices of hourly (non-exempt) retail HR employees are causes of low employee satisfaction and loyalty.
H2 – The role of Perceived Organizational Support and Supportive Human Resources Practices of hourly (non-exempt) retail HR employees has a significant impact on employee turnover and employee morale.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Sample and Data Collection
Primary research was derived from a climate survey containing 7 questions consisting of ratings (*ie: 1=strongly agree, 2=agree, 5= strongly disagree) were prepared. (see appendix A for survey) The survey was distributed by email to 60 current retail non-exempt Human Resources employees, both male and female.
The non-exempt HR participants work in various areas of human resources (i.e. HRIS, 19 compensations, benefits, recruiting). 1 completed, usable survey were returned over a 2 week period, a 31% participation rate. Key variables in thee survey include Organizational support, employee satisfaction, employee loyalty, employee morale and employee turnover. Once the surveys were returned, the responses will be counted and graphed to show the answers of the employees who are affected by retail organizational support. The validity and reliability of this survey been confirmed because this is the first time this self-made survey has been distributed to respondents.

RESULTS
The survey given was a random survey without inferences of race, gender, or age.
Table 1:
Support-HR 32%
Support-Manager 37%
Employee Compensation Satisfaction 58%
Employee Loyalty 26%

Table 1 illustrates that:
32% of total employees agree that their HR office assists them.
37% of employees feel they can openly talk to their supervisors about problems at work
58% strongly disagree that they are being compensated fairly
26% or employees are actively seeking employment outside of their organization
DISCUSSION
My study indicates that perceived organizational support is not extremely high amongst the hourly (non-exempt) Retail Human Resources Employees. According to the survey results, Employee Satisfaction has areas for improvement in Compensation. 5 out of 19 employees surveyed are actively seeking employment outside of the organization. Hypothesis 1 has proven to be correct. Low support does cause low employee satisfaction. However, hypothesis 2 -The role of Perceived Organizational Support and Supportive Human Resources Practices of hourly (non-exempt) retail HR employees has a significant impact on employee turnover may not be accurate. The amount of employees actively seeking employment is substantially low considering the fact that HR support is not rated very high.
LIMITATIONS AND IMPLICATIONS OF FUTURE RESEARCH
Respondents may not have accurately completed the survey. Some respondents may not follow directions and circle more than one answer per question or some respondents may not answer a question. There may be some issues with the questions asked in the survey. Since this survey has not been validated and is self-made, it may not answer the appropriate questions for the hypothesis given.
I believe that this issue is worth investigating. Since HR is such a vital department within an organization, it is important that the employees within the HR department are satisfied.

REFERENCES
Andrews, M. C., & Kacmar, K. M. (2001). Discriminating among organizational politics, justice, and support.

Aselage, J., & Eisenberger, R. (2003) Perceived Organizational support and psychological contracts: A theoretical integration.

Brown, Karen A. and Mitchell, Terence R. Organizational Obstacles: Links with Financial Performance, Customer Satisfaction, and Job Satisfaction in a Service Environment

Daily, R.C. & Kirk, D. J. (1992) Distributive and procedural justice as antecedents of job dissatisfaction and intent to turnover. Human Relations, 45, 305-317

Decenzo, David and Robbins, Stephen Human Resource Management

Fuller, J.B., Hester, K., Barnett, T. Frey, L. Relyea C. and Beu, D. (2006) Perceived external prestige and internal respect: New insights into the organizational identification process

Huselid, M. (1995) The Impact of Human Resource management practices on turnover, productivity, and corporate financial performance
Kiger, Patrick Why customer satisfaction starts with HR http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FXS/is_5_81/ai_86705177 -

Kreitner, Robert Organizational Behavior

Perry, R. W. (2004) The Relationship of Affective Organizational Commitment with Supervisory Trust

Shaver, J.M. (2005) Testing for Mediating Variables in Management Research: Concerns, Implications, and Alternative Strategies

Shore, Allen D. & Griffeth, R. (2003) The Role of Perceived Organizational sup-port and supportive human resource practices in the turnover process.
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