The objective of Part A was to measure and compare the pH of Common household items using pH paper.
The objective of Part B was to measure and compare the pH of various acids and bases at different concentrations, as well as the pH of various salts when dissolved in water using a pH probe.
The objective of Part C was to measure the pH of color change for various pH color indicators using a pH probe.
Discussion of Part A:
pH is the negative logarithm of the concentration of H3O+ in solution. It is thus useful to measure the acidity or basicity of a solution due to the concentration of H3O+ being a common measure of Acidity and the fact that these concentrations can vary by many orders of magnitude. The more H3O+ in a solution the more acidic the solution. Thus the lower the pH the more acidic the solution, while the larger the number the more basic. pH’s commonly measure from 1 to 14 though higher and lower values are possible, with the cutoff from acid to base at 7.
All of the solutions we measured as bases are used to clean. Baking Soda, Windex and Ammonia are all slightly basic with a pH of 9, allowing them to be able to use bases characteristic caustic nature as a cleaning agent. Bleach is a more extreme version of this with a pH of 12, used for more intense cleaning as it is a much stronger base. Meanwhile the acids contain both edible substances as well as cleaners. For the edible substances, sprite (pH4) and lemon juice (pH2), it makes sense that lemon juice is more acidic as it is much more sour than the soda. In addition, shampoo (pH6) and mouthwash (pH5) are mild acids, allowing them to be used as mild cleansing agents in human contact. Meanwhile toilet bowl cleaner is much more acidic (pH 1) helping to ...
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...acidic and basic, depending on the anions produced when they dissolve and their conjugate acids/bases. Another important implication is that the experiment with indicators helps to prove Le Chateliers principle, as changing the concentration of one of the products of a solution at equilibrium changes the ratio of reactants to products.
There are several further experiments that can be done following this experiment. One path is to measure the pH of more and different salts to figure out their reaction in water, thus confirming the mechanisms for making each an acid or base. Additionally, more indicators could be tested to have a fuller account of different ways to measure pH when pH meters are not available. Finally, different concentrations of salts could be used in experiments so that we could tell whether they acted as strong or weak acids/bases or if it depended
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