Personality psychology is the area of psychology that focuses on personality in the context of its variations among individuals. According to Hulbert (2009), personality defines a lasting pattern of emotions, motives, thoughts and behaviors through which the manner an individual reacts to situations and other people is characterized. Personality traits differ and they can be summarized in five perspectives that include psychodynamic, behavioral, trait, learning/social and humanistic. Ideally, all the five perspectives share a commonality in the context that they attempt to explain how personalities are formed or acquired. Personality measurement and research designs were developed to determine how individuals acquire a particular personality, whether it is stable or can be changed and ways in which personalities are different or similar (Zayas & Shoda, 2009). The measurement and research designs mainly focus on the construction of a logical representation of an individual’s major psychological processes and an investigation of their psychological differences basing on human nature. This paper will examine the major theoretical approaches, research methods and assessment instruments used in the psychodynamic, behavioral, trait, learning/social and humanistic perspectives of personality.
Personality studies are a major branch of psychology through which theories on the perspectives of personality are developed in an attempt to describe the existing differences in personality patterns. According to Jeronimus et al (2014), the most important aspect of the theories is their explanation of how the personality patterns are formed and how they differ among people at the individual level.
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...tanding the three traits (identity, description and measurement). According to Gass and Odland (2012), three personality dimensions were suggested by Hans Eysenck and they included psychoticism, extraversion-introversion and emotional stability neuroticism. On the other hand, 16 personality traits were identified by Raymond Cattell that he believed could facilitate the understanding and measuring of individual personality differences.
Common trait models incorporate up to five wide factors while trait theories incorporate the extraversion and neuroticism dimensions that are featured in the human theory by Hippocrates. However, traits are also considered as statistical generalizations and may not always correspond to the behavior of an individual since the significance of genetic influences on personality can change over a period of five years.
Big Five Framework
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