Orienting Response, Habituation and Perceptual Learning Essay

Orienting Response, Habituation and Perceptual Learning Essay

Length: 1986 words (5.7 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Term Papers

Open Document

Essay Preview

Stimuli bombards the mind of the individual throughout the day, and the mind translates the information into knowledge in a seemingly effortless manner. Multiple human sensory input vies for the individual’s attention simultaneously (Matlin, 1998). The process humans use to gather and interpret stimuli registered by their senses incorporates previous knowledge, attention, and pattern recognition (Robinson & Robinson, 2008). The concept of the orienting response (OR) and habituation enables an analysis of the factors of habituation and perceptual learning. An examination of other effects of stimulus exposure further facilitates an understanding of perceptual learning. Finally, an exploration of how the therapists can use simple stimulus in the treatment of phobias strengthens knowledge of simple stimulus. Although the process may occur unnoticed by the individual, stimulus repetitions can reduce or increase the individual’s perception of stimuli lessening the need for perceptual attentiveness and decreasing response time.
Orienting Response
Stimuli and response to stimuli are the basis for gathering information. Living beings use their senses to take in, organize, make sense of, and respond to the stimuli around them. The OR is a reaction to a new or surprising stimulus. It may be as simple as an investigative look in the direction of a noise or as dramatic as flight. Both physiological and behavioral types of responses occur, including a flinch, eye twitch, or other demonstration of arousal as dictated by the novelty, intensity, and situation relating to the stimulus. The novel or intense stimulus produces dramatic OR (Terry, 2009).
When an individual repeatedly experiences the same stimulus, the stimulus is less and...

... middle of paper ...

...ology: Applying the science of the mind (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon.
Rothbaum, B., Hodges, L., Watson, B., Kassler, G. and Opdyke, D. Vir- tual reality exposure therapy in the treatment of fear of flying: A case re- port. Beh. Res. Ther. 34, 5-6 (May/Jun. 1996), 477–481.
Spiering, B., & Ashby, F. (2008). Initial training with difficult items facilitates information integration, but not rule-based category learning. Psychological Science, 19(11), 1169-1177. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02219.x
Strickland, D., Hodges, L., North, M. & Weghorst, S. (1997, August). Overcoming phobias by virtual exposure. Communications of the ACM, 40(8), 34-39. Retrieved from http://dl.acm.org.ezproxy.apollolibrary.com/citation.cfm?id=257881
Terry, W. S. (2009). Learning and memory: Basic principles, processes, and procedures (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson/Allyn Bacon.

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Essay about Investigation on the Habituation of Snails to Touch

- Objectives: To investigate the habituation of snails to harmless stimulus. To develop problem solving and experimental skills, for example, information is accurately processed and presented, experimental procedures are planned, designed and evaluated properly, producing valid results, recording results, and valid conclusion is drawn. To learn the correct way of poking the snail. Problem Statement: When a garden snail is touched, it withdraws its eye stalks into its body quickly. This is a quick response of the snail to avoid dangers and ensure survival....   [tags: science experiment, lab report, animals]

Term Papers
3120 words (8.9 pages)

Experiment of Perceptual Settings Essay

- Experiment of Perceptual Settings Experiment of Perceptual Settings The Webster dictionary determines perception to be knowledge by the senses and/or life that have an influence on people’s perception (Parker, 2010). The way people perceive things is based on their five senses. The sense of sight was the main sense used in the following experiment, as well as a person’s memory. Eyes tell people what they want to see and want to know. They tell you how to conceive a person and their behaviors as well as their reactions....   [tags: Perception]

Term Papers
1278 words (3.7 pages)

Essay on Terraforming Mars for Human Habitation

- Terraforming Mars is the process of purposely changing the known properties of Mars to satisfy safe human habitation. In order to do this, we would have to use a 1000-year timeline. A thousand year timeline is best because it would give humans the time needed to change the atmosphere of Mars, change the temperature of Mars, grow food, and more. In order for the terraforming process to work, humans must permanently live on Mars for. For humans to permanently live on Mars, a fuel source must be used....   [tags: mars, human habitation, co2 atmosphere]

Term Papers
1154 words (3.3 pages)

Response to A God Of Small Things Essay

- Response to A God Of Small Things One of the main themes in Arundhati Roy's A God Of Small Things is discrimination in the caste system. Roy tells the story of the hardships faced by the Untouchables, the lowest caste in the caste system. Technically, the Untouchables are not even in the caste system because to put them in the same system as the other four castes would be offensive to the rest of them. Another theme in this novel is forbidden love. These two themes, discrimination in the caste system and forbidden love, come together when Mammachi sneaks across the river "to love by night the man her children love by day", to meet Velutha....   [tags: Literature Response]

Term Papers
1134 words (3.2 pages)

Analyzing Perceptual Stimuli Essay

- Perceiving visual, auditory, or chemical sensations is the first step to sorting objects, events, or situations into categories. Seger and Miller (2010) discuss the importance of contrasting brain regions for this initial task. Specifically for processing visual sensations, early phases of category learning are dependent upon regions in the visual system for perceiving information and discerning between noteworthy characteristics. An area of the visual system believed to be important for analyzing perceptual stimuli is the Inferior Temporal Cortex (ITC) (Seger & Miller, 2010)....   [tags: Research Analysis ]

Term Papers
1210 words (3.5 pages)

Reader Response Criticism Essay

- Fish’s Reader Response Criticism is composed of two interdependent ideas: first, that the meaning of texts is shaped by the reading experience itself, and second, that these meanings cannot be judged to be correct or incorrect, but merely belonging to one “interpretive community” or another. The first idea may be identified as the executive aspect of Reader Response Criticism because it analyzes the act of reading, while the second idea is the epistemological aspect of the theory because it circumscribes the knowledge we can acquire about a text to the merely relative....   [tags: Literary Response]

Term Papers
967 words (2.8 pages)

Perceptual Reorganization Essay

- Description As group number 7, my group presented in week 4 on the topic of ‘Differentiation of native vs. nonnative contrasts', specifically targeting infants 0-12 months old. The article we used was the by Narayan, Werker and Beddor (2010) on ‘The interaction between acoustic salience and language experience in developmental speech perception: evidence from nasal place discrimination'. As the title suggests, the researches tried to find out whether infants were able to perceive nasal place differences between native and nonnative syllables, focusing mainly on any possible interaction between acoustic salience and the infants' language experience....   [tags: ]

Term Papers
2025 words (5.8 pages)

Essay about The Perceptual Process

- The perceptual process can be very deceiving to some people, for example, take a deep woods country boy from Arkansas and put him in New York or Los Angeles , everything he may have been taught growing up is flying around in his head fast enough to make him dizzy. That’s because the setting in the perceptual process could be the most important ingredient in that process. There are three ingredients to this process. The perceiver, which is the person forming an opinion about another based on many different things, such as values and attitudes....   [tags: essays research papers]

Free Essays
437 words (1.2 pages)

Perceptual Illusions Essay

- Perceptual Illusions Many of us take our vision for granted. We seem to accurately use our properties of vision with little effort or thinking at all. At times we often see things with our eyes and wonder how can this be possible. Physicist Richard Feyman once wrote, "It's quite wonderful that we can see or figure it out so easily. Someone who's standing at my left can see somebody who's standing at my right -- that is the light can be going this way across or that way across, or this way up, or that way down; it's a complete network....   [tags: Papers]

Term Papers
1086 words (3.1 pages)

Perceptual Errors Essays

- Perceptual Errors Perceptual Organization (1)  Similarity is described as the tendency to group similar items. Similarity is much like stereotyping. Stereotyping is when someone judges another person on the perception of the group to which that person belongs.  Proximity is described as the tendency to group elements that are close together. Implicit theories allow the presence of one characteristic to bring up a list of other characteristics that one would “think” goes with it....   [tags: Essays Papers]

Term Papers
749 words (2.1 pages)