Orienting Response, Habituation and Perceptual Learning Essay

Orienting Response, Habituation and Perceptual Learning Essay

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Stimuli bombards the mind of the individual throughout the day, and the mind translates the information into knowledge in a seemingly effortless manner. Multiple human sensory input vies for the individual’s attention simultaneously (Matlin, 1998). The process humans use to gather and interpret stimuli registered by their senses incorporates previous knowledge, attention, and pattern recognition (Robinson & Robinson, 2008). The concept of the orienting response (OR) and habituation enables an analysis of the factors of habituation and perceptual learning. An examination of other effects of stimulus exposure further facilitates an understanding of perceptual learning. Finally, an exploration of how the therapists can use simple stimulus in the treatment of phobias strengthens knowledge of simple stimulus. Although the process may occur unnoticed by the individual, stimulus repetitions can reduce or increase the individual’s perception of stimuli lessening the need for perceptual attentiveness and decreasing response time.
Orienting Response
Stimuli and response to stimuli are the basis for gathering information. Living beings use their senses to take in, organize, make sense of, and respond to the stimuli around them. The OR is a reaction to a new or surprising stimulus. It may be as simple as an investigative look in the direction of a noise or as dramatic as flight. Both physiological and behavioral types of responses occur, including a flinch, eye twitch, or other demonstration of arousal as dictated by the novelty, intensity, and situation relating to the stimulus. The novel or intense stimulus produces dramatic OR (Terry, 2009).
Habituation
When an individual repeatedly experiences the same stimulus, the stimulus is less and...


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Spiering, B., & Ashby, F. (2008). Initial training with difficult items facilitates information integration, but not rule-based category learning. Psychological Science, 19(11), 1169-1177. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02219.x
Strickland, D., Hodges, L., North, M. & Weghorst, S. (1997, August). Overcoming phobias by virtual exposure. Communications of the ACM, 40(8), 34-39. Retrieved from http://dl.acm.org.ezproxy.apollolibrary.com/citation.cfm?id=257881
Terry, W. S. (2009). Learning and memory: Basic principles, processes, and procedures (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson/Allyn Bacon.

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