The factor of Force bore heavily on the German defensive capabilities. The demands of Operation OVERLORD created significant shortfalls in terms of unit strength, force structure, combat power and overall readiness among Army Group G units. Prior to OVERLORD, Army Group G maintained a relatively well-balanced force. However, shortages in manpower and sustainment degraded functional areas and compounded challenges in command and control, logistical support and intelligence management. Inadequate management of essential operational functions challenged Army Group G’s ability to achieve its assigned objective.
Army Group G attempted to supplement shortfalls in the Factor of Force with alternate, even foreign sources of Force. For example, in order to beef up unit strength, the Germans maintained Ost Forces. However, Ost Forces comprised non-German conscripts and volunteers of questionable overall quality. Furthermore, they were fielded as separate units when they may have been more effective had they been integrated with the regular German units. This also raises the question of Unity of Command, as a number of Ost Forces were also not under the direct command of Army Group G and appear to have been seen as “outsiders,” thereby undermining Unity of Effort. ...
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...ivities and presence with overwhelming conventional force. Although successful in driving the FFI out of the Rhone Valley, the mismatch between German Forces and FFI guerillas exposed vulnerabilities in the German army and resulted in the frittering away of elements of Force as attempts to contain the FFI involved shifting manpower resources away from the fight and into base security.
Ultimately, Army Group G was unable to take advantage of the factor of Space provided by concentrating forces in the Toulon-Marseille region. For example, as reports of the invasion began to filter in to the Nineteenth Army, comms were interrupted by cut telephone lines. As a result, leadership lost the ability to make important tactical decisions and inform the strategic chain of command. These developments offset the Space-Force advantages the Germans had hoped to gain.
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