Essay on Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale

Essay on Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale

Length: 889 words (2.5 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Better Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

1. Ground shaking intensity is defined as the severity of ground motion, i.e. displacement, during an earthquake and is assessed using the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale (MMI). This scale is a good indicator on the effects and earthquake has on the environment and its population. It is based on three features:

 People’s perception
 Building performance
 Changes in the natural environment

The MMI is often associated to Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA), which is used to quantify the severity of ground shaking as shown in Table 1.

The intensity of an earthquake is a qualitative measure of the shaking at a location and it usually depends on:

 The Magnitude of an earthquake
 Distance from the fault
 Local Geology
These will all affect the way in which seismic waves will propagate through the ground and therefore will be responsible for all the subsequent event which will occur as a result of the earthquake.
Subsidence is a result of earthquake shaking. As the ground shakes, unconsolidated sediments lose their bearing strengths and the ground “shifts” downwards relative to sea level and this resulted in liquefaction and landslides and flooding. Subsidence can also occur as a result of downward displacement on one side of a fault which may sometimes affect large areas of land.
The 4th of September 2010 Darfield event generated a magnitude 7.1 earthquake with a MMI of 9. This earthquake resulted in extensive liquefaction and differential subsidence which was located close to major streams and rivers around Christchurch.
The 22nd of February 2011 Christchurch City event created a magnitude 6.3 earthquake with a MMI of 9. This earthquake occurred within 10 kilometres of the city at a shallow depth of 5 kilometres. This cau...


... middle of paper ...


...l change and liquefaction in the Avon-Heathcote Estuary. Report No. U11/13, Christchruch: Environment Canterbury Regional Council, 2011.
Quigley, M. Van Dissen, R., Villamor, P., Litchfield, N., Barrell, D., Furlong, K., Stahl, T., Duffy, B., Bilderback, E,. Noble, D., Townsend, D., Begg, J., Jongens, R., Ries, W., Claridge, J., Klahn, A., Mackenzie, H., Smith, A., Hornblow, S., Nicol, R. “Surface rupture of the Greendale Fault during the Mw 7.1 Darfield (Canterbury) earthquake, New Zealand: Initial Findings.” Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering 43:4 (2010): 236-242.
SC Cox, HK Rutter , A Sims , M Manga , JJ Weir , T Ezzy , PA White , TW Horton & D Scott (2012). “Hydrological effects of the Mw 7.1 Darfield (Canterbury) earthquake, 4 September 2010, New Zealand.” New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics 55:3 (September 2012): 231-247.


Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

The Braden Scale Essay

- The Braden Scale is a clinically valued tool that is used to predict pressure ulcers. The scale is broken down into six sub-scales; these subscales determine the risk factors associated with skin break down. Multiple aspects of a patients condition are examined, (sensory perception, moisture, activity, mobility, nutrition, friction and shear), to limit the patients susceptibility for skin break down. Since pressure ulcers are a financial burden and a cause for patient discomfort and possible infection, predicting and assessing risk has enormous benefit and significance....   [tags: The Braden Scale]

Free Essays
547 words (1.6 pages)

The Beck Hopelessness Scale And The Measure Of Depression Essay

- The Description of Beck Hopelessness Scale The revised format of the Beck Hopelessness Scale uses a four point Likert scale (Neufeld et al., 2010). The purpose of the assessment is to measure one’s negative position of the future (Neufeld et al., 2010). According to research, it has been found that there is a positive correlation with one’s scores on the Beck Hopelessness Scale and the measure of depression (Iliceto & Fino, 2014). The validity of the Beck Hopelessness Scale has been questioned amongst nonclinical populations (Iliceto & Fino, 2014)....   [tags: Psychometrics, Likert scale]

Better Essays
1335 words (3.8 pages)

The Benefits of Genetically Modified Foods Essay

- Genetically modified foods are organic materials which cross pollinates to become highly nutritious and valuable. I learned from my middle school years, that Gregor Mendel’s experiment on pea pods is an example of genetically modified foods. In Mendel’s experiment, he cross pollinated two pea pods, which had different gene alleles. The growth stage produces two pea pods with brighter green leaves. Genetically modified foods also have a bad consequence to needy families from small villages. Yet, these families feed on genetically modified products because items are more in nutrients and vitamins....   [tags: GMOs, Genetically Modified Crops]

Free Essays
1130 words (3.2 pages)

Essay about Benefits Of 20 Minute High Intensity Interval Training

- Are the benefits of 20 minute High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) equivalent to running for 6 miles. It is believed that HIIT could be an alternative for endurance training due its cardiovascular adaptations. HIIT incorporates repeated bouts of vigorous exercise for a short period of time followed up by recovery periods while endurance training involves one type of exercise at a steady, constant rate. Both HITT as well as Endurance training have similar impacts on VO2max , left ventricular mass, and peripheral vascular structure which could explain why one could substitute for the other....   [tags: Heart, Blood, High-intensity interval training]

Better Essays
853 words (2.4 pages)

Essay about Genetically Modified Organisms ( Gmo )

- Generations have purposefully modified plant life for thousands of years through selective breeding and cross pollination. The idea of selective breeding and cross pollination to produce a more sustainable source of food does not bother most people, but once this is done in a lab and given the name genetically modified society refuses to accept it. Genetically modified organism (GMO) refers to the process of cutting out a section of a gene from one organism and placing it inside another organism’s DNA in hopes to alter or create a new trait for the benefit of its survival (Lajeunesse)....   [tags: Genetically modified food]

Better Essays
1022 words (2.9 pages)

The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale IIi Essay

- The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III) is intended for use with adults and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV (WISC-IV) is designed for children ages 6 – 16. A test is considered reliable if we are able to get the same or similar result repeatedly. Testing is done when one has some concerns about a child 's learning needs and wants to determine the child 's learning potential. Apart from providing IQ scores, the WISC-IV also provides essential information and critical insights into a child 's cognitive functioning....   [tags: Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale]

Better Essays
1542 words (4.4 pages)

The Issue Of Genetically Modified Foods Essay

- Genetically modified foods are food products that have been altered so that the DNA of one species has been extricated and artificially embedded into said food product. As GMOs are being pulled into the public eye more with the rise of GMOs gracing grocery stores and supermarkets, it is not spoken about enough. The argument around GMOs are based on their safety or lack thereof. Pro-GMO proponents such as websites and large biotech companies argue that there is not enough evidence to prove that they are unsafe....   [tags: Genetically modified organism]

Better Essays
1596 words (4.6 pages)

Genetically Modified Organisms ( Gmo ) Essay

- Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) is an organism, such as a plant, animal, or any microorganism who’s had its DNA changed in different ways through genetic engineering that is not natural. It is an organism like every other organism, which produces thousands of proteins, but one or two of them are proteins that were chosen were specifically by humans. It creates unstable combinations of plants, animal, bacterial, and viral genes that do not occur in nature or through traditional crossbreeding methods....   [tags: Genetically modified food]

Better Essays
1264 words (3.6 pages)

Benefits Of Genetically Modified Food Essay

- Hippocrates has been quoted, “Let food be thy medicine, and medicine be thy food” (Asiado). In his day the idea of genetically modifying food did not exist. At that time the food that existed was what grew naturally on earth; his opinion was that the cures to diseases could be found in those foods. Fast forward 2000 years and the topic of GMO’s is a topic greatly debated among those in the field and the general public is starting to become aware as well. Most people have at least heard about the possible dangers to one’s health associated with the consumption of GMO’s in our food; they may have also heard the other side proclaim how GMO’s could solve world hunger....   [tags: Genetically modified food]

Better Essays
1047 words (3 pages)

Genetically Modified Foods Essay

- Introduction Let’s face it, the term genetically modified (GM) foods is not the most appetizing word in the English language and neither is the term genetically engineered foods for that matter. Whether or not you realize it, you have consumed at least one product that contains genetically modified foods. These “modified foods” are hiding all over your supermarkets and in some instances, there is no way to tell just by looking at it. But, they have been around for more than two decades and it has helped to keep our food supply alive....   [tags: GMOs, Genetically Modified Crops]

Better Essays
1663 words (4.8 pages)