The avalanche photodiode (APD) is the photomultiplier equivalent for semiconductor detectors. APD gives internal gain but not as much as photomultiplier. APDs are capable to achieve gain of a few hundreds while photomultipliers can achieve gain on the order of 106 . Moreover, in practical case it is preferred because the detectors with large responsivity requires less optical power. The internal current gain is obtained by the process of impact ionization where an accelerating electron generates another electron-hole pair . The accelerating electron provides some of its kinetic energy to an ...
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...ogy, it is appropriate to use FET technology for MSM photodiode. Flip-chip optoelectronic integrated circuit (OEIC) is a combined technology that can be used for fabricating combined InGaAs receivers -. We can fabricate photodiode on InP chip and the other electronic component of receiver on GaAs chip, then with OEIC technology we can combine these two. The main advantage of this case is minimum input capacitance with optimum independent electronic components an photodiode on two different chips. The figure below shows the flip-chip OEIC technology.
Fig. 17. Flip-chip technology for integrated circuits.
There are many other approaches to fabricate photodiode and other receiver electronic components in one chip or two different chips. Moreover, the packaging of optical receiver is also important issue because the optical receiver’s performance depends on it.
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