Genetic And, Genetic, And Genetic Association Between Borderline Personality Disorder

Genetic And, Genetic, And Genetic Association Between Borderline Personality Disorder

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There are multiple causes of BPD, both genetic and environmental. Genetic factors related to the onset of BPD are difficult to test and studies on the factors are far and few between. However, the few studies that have been conducted, estimated heritability for BPD at around 40% by comparing both monozygotic and dizygotic twins. (Torgerson et al 2000; Distel et al 2008; Distel et al 2009). The risk of BPD is 11.5% in immediate family members, which, as mentioned earlier, is higher than the percentage of the general population that is diagnosed with BPD (Nigg and Goldsmith, 1994). Both these results imply that genes do factor into a portion of the likelihood of being diagnosed with BPD. Another genetic study conducted by Distel and colleagues (2009) studied the relationship between the five-factor model (FFM) of personality and its relationship to borderline personality disorder. The personality traits of FFM are neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. The study examined the phenotypic and genetic association between borderline personality and FFM personality traits. It was shown that those with a specific pattern of scores for the FFM, such as high neuroticism and low agreeableness, have a genetic predisposition to BPD.
Even with a genetic predisposition, environment still plays a large role in the development of BPD. Research suggests that environmental factors also are a large contributor to the onset of BPD. Childhood trauma, such as abuse, has been shown to increase the likelihood of being diagnosed with BPD. 40-71% of inpatients diagnosed with BPD suffered from sexual abuse as a child, making it the most common form of abuse associated with the disorder, however, ...

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...tage of females are diagnosed with BPD than men. Although the prevalence is the same among males and females, females are more likely to inflict visible self-harm, prompting the hospitalization and diagnosis of BPD (Sansone & Sansone, 2011). Due to this, generalizations should be made with caution to the treatment of men diagnosed with BPD. In addition, pharmacotherapy studies are generally conducted on individuals with mild to moderate BPD symptoms, therefore making the results difficult to extend to individuals with severe BPD symptoms.
Much research has been conducted on BPD in recent years, increasing our knowledge about the disorder. Still, more research needs to be conducted on various treatments for BPD. With the vast number of manifestations of BPD, a number of different treatments should be considered and tested for efficiency in treating each case.

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