There is a nursery rhyme called “What Are Little Girls/Boys made of” (Mother Goose, 1916); what are little girls made of? Sugar and spice and everything nice that is what little girls are made of! What are little boys made of? Snips and snails and puppy dog tails that is what little boys are made of! Such a seemingly innocent childhood memory, that just about every young American child has heard suggests gender identity norms of what masculine and feminine behavior is. The gender behavior of males in many cultures are typically stereotyped as aggressive, tough, and non-emotional. The gender behavior of females in many cultures is typically stereotyped as sensitive, sweet and soft. These stereotypes with gender identity also play crucial roles in the behavior of bullies.
The definition of a bully is intentional aggressive behavior with the intent to harm another person showing an imbalance of power between the bully and their victim (Smith, Ploenik, Nakasita, and Jones, 2012). The image of a bully can usually be pictured as a male engaged in physical aggression. This perception of a bully is directed towards those typical stereotypes of gender identity norms. The reality is that a bully can be male or female. Male bullies do typically use a direct and physical form of aggression, but girls tend to be indirect and secretive in the way they portray aggression. This perception of male and female bullies is fixated on those gender identity norms.
The differences in how males and females bully can be substantiated through many research journals, as well as media coverage concerning the heavy topic of bullying. In recent news the principal of a high school in New Jersey cancelled their football season d...
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...Advance Media, for NJ.com.
Matsumoto, D., & Juang, L. (2013). Culture and Psychology (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Ringrose, J., & Renold, E. (2010). Normative cruelties and gender deviants: the performative effects of bully discourses for girls and boys in school. British Educational Research Journal, 36(4), 573-596.
Smith, H., Polenik, K., Nakasita, S., & Jones, A.P. (2012). Emotional and behavioral difficulties. Profiling Social, Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties of Children Involved in Direct Bullying Behaviors, 17(3-4), 243-257.
Wallace, K. (2014, April 24). Police file raises questions about bullying in Rebecca Sedwick’s suicide. CNN Living.
Wolke, D., & Woods, S. (2000). The Association between Direct and Relational Bullying and Behavior Problems among Primary School Children. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied Disciplines, 41(8), 989.
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