Collectively the ‘Rentier effect’ shows the….
The second causal explanation of why oil impedes democracy is the repression effect. It links the authoritarian nature of a state and ways in which it can maintain power through using wealth from its rent to help oppress.
With the Internet and everything it brings (instantaneous communication and social media) now a part of everyday life across the globe, its hard to believe that people in middle eastern authoritarian states have no concept of the democratic process and the benefits it can bring to the populace.
“Citizens in oil rich countries may want democracy as much as citizens across the globe but the resource wealth may allow their governments to spend more on internal security”
Resource wealth often leads to a larger military presence. Those in control know that habitually, as is seen all too often in Africa, the military poses the biggest threat to the regime. If the military can then be compensated financially they not only remove the threat from that sector, they can then use the military to oppress other rival sectors. A large and compliant military is a staunch obstacle to overcome for many in Middle Eastern authoritarian regi...
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Even before this year 's Arab uprisings, the Middle East was not an undifferentiated block of authoritarianism. The citizens of countries with little or no oil, such as Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, and Tunisia, generally had more freedom than those of countries with lots of it, such as Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, and Saudi Arabia. And once the tumult started, the oil-rich regimes were more effective at fending off attempts to unseat them. Indeed, the Arab Spring has seriously threatened just one oil-funded ruler -- Libya 's Muammar al-Qaddafi -- and only because NATO 's intervention prevented the rebels ' certain defeat.
As Dick Cheney, then the CEO of Haliburton, remarked at a 1996 energy conference, "The problem is that the good Lord didn 't see fit to put oil and gas reserves where there are democratic governments."
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