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Table 1 Stages of technological maturity of renewable energy Source: UNEP [19] Renewable energy Research and development stage Demonstration and deployment stage Diffusion stage Commercial maturity stage Hydro energy - Hydrokinetic turbines - Run-of-river Reservoirs Pumped storage Biofuels Aquatic plant-derived fuels Pyrolysis-based biofuels Lignocellulose sugar-based biofuels Gasification-based power Lignocellulose syngas-based biofuels Traditional usage Cook stoves Domestic heating Small/large-scale boilers Anaerobic digestion Combined heat and power Co-firing fossil fuels Combustion-based power Sugar and starch-based ethanol Plant and seed oil-based biodiesel Gaseous biofuels Wind energy Higher-altitude wind generator Wind kites Offshore, large turbines Onshore, large turbines Distributed, small turbines Turbines for water pumping Solar energy Solar fuels Solar cooling Solar cooking Concentrating PV Concentrating solar thermal power Photovoltaic (PV) Low temp solar thermal Passive solar architecture Geothermal energy Submarine geothermal energy Engineered geothermal systems - Direct use applications Geothermal heat pumps Hydrothermal, binary cycle Hydrothermal, condensing flash Ocean energy Ocean currents Wave Tidal currents Salinity gradients Ocean thermal energy conversion - Tidal range However, using renewable energy is challenging because it has some very serious drawbacks, among which we can mention the following: - Intermittent nature of renewable sources (such as wind and photovoltaic), which can lead to system imbalances [3]. The capacity of renewable energy has to be integrated into the energy system by the grid operators, but the system planning and the investments needed are hindered by the intermit... ... middle of paper ... ...ified through the role played by public power, that is the role of protecting the citizen, especially in two respects: the right to receive the requested service and the right to equitable tariff. It is widely accepted that there may be a public service if a community (local, regional, national, European) estimates that at some point, within the area of responsibility, a good or an essential service for all, existing or new, cannot be satisfactorily provided only through market mechanisms [27–29]. There is a need for a new attitude in both design and management of modern services in order to develop renewable energy in the European Union. Moreover, in this context, the role of the state and the services it provides in ensuring energy security, as well as in establishing energy policy will continue to be important, and will be intensified in some areas of action [2].

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