A. afarensis lived in eastern Africa between 3 and 4 million years ago. This australopithecine had a brain size a little larger than chimpanzees. Some had canine teeth more sticking out than those of later hominines. No tools of any kind have been found with A. afarensis fossils. According to Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia ’98, between about 2.5 million and 3 million years ago, A. afarensis clearly evolved into A. africanus.
Introduction The main purpose of this essay is to critically discuss the importance of an understanding of human evolution and the history of psychology for the modern psychologist. The essay aims to critically discuss the study of human evolution which includes some of the species that evolved over the years before we now have our species, the history of psychology and the different prominent figures that are responsible for psychology being the field it is today. Finally, how an understanding of this can aid a modern psychologist. To conclude, this essay will collate previous research done on human evolution, history of psychology and the importance of this for the modern psychologist. Human Evolution Human evolution started with Charles Darwin who thought that humans evolved from apes, he aimed to explain this through his theory of natural selection, genetic variation and ‘survival of the fittest’ (Ruse 2009).Through this insight gave rise to all archaeologists to search in the eastern and western African region to find fossil evidence of these apes or species we have evolved from.
The Austalopithicus was found in African and was know to have lived from 4.2 to around 1.0 million years ago (Standford 251). They had a small body like an ape that would get approximately 64 to around 100 pounds. They had a big jaw with a U-shaped mouth of small teeth. The brain size of a Australopithicus was small and would get approximately 340 to 500 cc, which is in the same range as gorillas and chimpanzees brain sizes. The top of their skull was of a bony ridge.
Ker Than, National Geographic News .Published May 6, 2010 4. Alper, Joe. Rethinking Neanderthal, Smithsonian, June 2003, pp 83-87. 5. Noonan, James P. Neanderthal genomics and the evolution of modern humans.
The English version comes from the Latin word “Africanus’. Back in the ancient Africa they found a hominid subfamily. There was only one thing surviving is was called the Homo sapien. Researchers found evidence that there were modern human like species that once lived in Africa. The species for which humans belong to are called Australopithecines.
San Diego: Academic Press Ltd. Payne, D., Wenger, M. (1982). Cognitive Psychology. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company Ruff, R. (2003) A friendly critique of neuropsychology: facing the challenges of our future, Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology. 18( 8), 847-864. Sternberg, R., Wagner, R. (1999), Readings in Cognitive Psychology.
Australopithecus afarensis comes first, existing about 3.9 to 2.9 million years ago, with intermediate anatomical traits between living apes and modern humans; their fossils were found in Africa (Yukimoto). About a million to two million years later, the species Homo erectus came into existence and lots of evidence has been found about this particular species, in fact, it was probable that it was the first species to leave Africa (Yukimoto). These species are significant in the evolution of modern humans. We do not have a clear path or even understand why these species emerged when they did or how they, in theory, eventually evolved into modern humans. We can only assume these things, by using various evolutionary processes such as natural selection, genetic bottleneck, and many more.
Since the discoveries of Charles Darwin and other nineteenth century explorers, humans have created an analogy of the evolution of our own species. This view of our evolution is often represented by an all-too-familiar branching tree. Recent studies, however, suggest that this interpretation should be replaced with a map of human derivation in the form of an interwoven “tapestry.” These lineages would come together in kinships over time (Finlayson). Two recent studies have proved that Neanderthal DNA is still present in modern human keratin, the protein that helps produce skin, hair, and nails (Yong). Today, there is much uncertainty in the work of anthropologists.
Available: http://socserv2.socci.mcmaster.ca/~econ/ugcm/3ll3/mcdougall/socialpsych.pdf “Nature vs. Nurture.” Social Psychology. 2002. Online. Internet. Oct 02 2202.